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COMMAS! Dun, Dun, DUUNNNNNNN!
Around: Nonessential clauses and Interrupters After: Introductory words and phrases Quotation marks: Before: Coordinating conjunctions that combine two complete sentences Separate: Items in a series Comma Rules
Commas Come Before • Coordinating Conjunctions that separate two complete sentences For And Nor But Or Yet So • The war lasted for several years, but not many people supported it. • She studied very hard, yet she failed her exam. • The politician campaigned enthusiastically but never gathered much money.
Commas with ConjunctionsMark each sentence as C or I. Correct Incorrect sentences. • Lucy hit her brother but he said it didn’t hurt. • John took Vitamin C, and a multivitamin every day. • We wanted to leave, yet something held us there. • We didn’t know what to do so we sat down to wait. • The cave made me uncomfortable, for it was cold and damp. • I had pancakes for breakfast and drank milk with them. • My mom bought a new car but didn’t drive it home. • The nuclear explosion caused sewage systems to overflow, and disease to spread. • The banana was starting to brown yet it was still very tasty. • Jerry was told he could either go to the mall or the basketball game.
Commas Separate • Items in a series (3 or more) • I went to the store for bread, milk, and eggs. • Michelle was kicked off the team because she failed a class, was disrespectful to her teacher, and skipped practice. • John is allergic to dairy products and chocolate.
Commas that SeparateWrite each sentence and put commas where they are needed. • The elderly man clutched his heart swooned and fell to the floor when he had a heart attack. • My dog gets scared whenever thunder booms strangers knock at the door or I try to give him a bath. • I spent the afternoon shopping for groceries and playing tennis. • Fresh bread roasted chicken and three bottles of sparkling wine were packed in the picnic basket.
Commas Go Around Nonessential Elements and Interrupters • NONESSENTIAL • The man forgot, however, where he had placed his keys. • Mary Roberts, calling out Joe’s name, ran down the street. • Our neighbor, who is the foreman at the plant, is on vacation. • ESSENTIAL • Each student who is going on the field trip must turn in a permission slip. • The woman who is running the cash register just went on break.
Essential The book that Chubb was eating is overdue at the library. This sentence is about a particular book -- the one Chubb was eating. We watched the award-winning movie "The Departed." Lots of movies win awards. It is "essential" to know which one. Lorraine drove her daughter Margie to school and her daughter Suzie to work. Lorraine has more than one daughter. The names are "essential." Jarrett's neighbor Lisa watched from the hedge. Jarrett has neighbors on both sides. It is "essential" to know which one watched. Nonessential The book, which Chubb chewed all night, was due at the library yesterday. This sentence is about the fact that the book is due. The fact that Chubb chewed it all night is extra detail; it is nonessential. Jarrett's bulldog, Chubb, likes books. Assume Jarrett has only one bulldog; the name "Chubb" is nonessential. The speaker was the winner of the 2007 Academy Award for leading actor, Forest Whittaker. There was only one such winner in 2007. Thus, the name is "nonessential." Lisa's cat, Mordred, watched from the shadows. Assume that Lisa has only one cat. This makes the cat's name "nonessential" to the meaning of the sentence. Lorraine and her husband, Charlie, worked in the garden. Lorraine only has one husband; therefore, his name is nonessential.
Practice • The woman who interviewed you is my sister. • The average world temperature however has continued to rise significantly. • Company managers seeking higher profits hired temporary workers to replace full-time staff. • The person checking tickets at the counter asked for a form of identification. • My uncle Joe who is eighty years old walks three miles every day. • The sixth-century philosopher Boethius was arrested tortured and bludgeoned to death.
Commas that Go AroundMark each sentence as C or I. Correct Incorrect sentences. • Sally, whom you met at last night's dance, wants to know if you found her purse. • The game as you remember was a tie. • The French artist Jaques Laurent appeared at a speaking engagement in New York. • Mr. Duffy named as college counselor in 1985 has been promoted to Duke of Students. • Our son who won last year's prize was disqualified from the competition. • Fred, green with envy, refused to acknowledge Harvey's mastery of the game of Yahtze. • Jim, sheriff of Monroe County, wanted to question the witness. • The boy, who broke my car window, brought flowers to my house. • The parole violator must of course pay his fine. • The dog that dug up my garden was returned to its owner.
Commas Go After • Introductory Words and Phrases • As a matter of fact, he did graduate high school. • However, Brad didn’t go to the movies. • Brad didn’t go to the movies however. • To pass the Economics test, you must study very hard. • To pass the Economics test without studying is unheard of.
Commas that Go AfterMark each sentence as C or I. Correct Incorrect sentences. To stay in shape for competition athletes must exercise every day. Meanwhile the athletes trained on the Nautilus equipment. Still, the credibility of some witnesses was in question. Extracting the most profit for the least expenditure on labor and materials, is the primary goal of a capitalist. The wind blowing violently, the townspeople began to seek shelter. After the adjustment for inflation real wages have decreased while corporate profits have grown. Preparing and submitting his report was one of the most difficult tasks Bill had ever attempted. To start a new business without doing market research would be foolish. Barking insistently Smokey got us to throw his ball for him. A popular and well respected mayor Tom Bailey was the clear favorite in the campaign for governor.
Commas that Go AfterMark each sentence as C or I. Correct Incorrect sentences. Dear Johnny I’m so excited to tell you about our Fourth of July! That morning the rest of the family arrived at our house. We cooked a big breakfast that consisted of eggs bacon biscuits and gravy toast milk and orange juice. After eating the kids wanted to go outside and we adults were more than happy to let them! In the meantime Aunt Martha and I cleaned the kitchen. The kids full of energy played nonstop the rest of the morning. For dinner we grilled hotdogs and had a great time and by the end of the day everyone was exhausted. You must join us next year! Love Miranda
Commas with Quotation Marks • Every quotation must have punctuation at the end, inside the quotation marks • A comma if the quote is at the beginning--“Hurry up,” she said. • An end mark if it’s at the end.--She said, "Hurry up." • When a quote comes at the beginning of the sentence, end punctuation is determined by the type of sentence. • “Shut up!” she yelled. • “Don’t you love me?” he asked. • “I guess so,” he mumbled. • Some form of punctuation must always separate the quote from the rest of the sentence • A comma if the quote is at the end--Mr. Johnson said, “Good grief!” • The punc. mark for the quote if the quote is at the beginning--“I didn't see the alien,” Mr. Johnson said. • The placement of question marks with quotes follows logic. • She asked, "Will you still be my friend?" • Do you agree with the saying, "All's fair in love and war“?
Commas with Quotation Marks My sister would like to go to the movies with us said Gina May This summer promises continued Roger to be a very memorable one for sure Would you care for another slice of pizza asked Mom Mrs. Miller said she wanted the tree projects on her desk first period tomorrow Mrs. Gardner added We should find out tomorrow Nick said that he wasn't feeling well yesterday We have to finish this quickly or we'll get in trouble cried Katie Here is the hammer you asked for said Richard Perhaps you wouldn't be so tired suggested Dad if you went to bed earlier Excellent work Paul praised Mom
NAMES • Carla, where are you going? • How are you doing, Sandy? • Well, Jacob, you are wrong. • Steven goes to the store. • Blake likes turkey. • My sister Angela lives in Ohio.
Coordinate Adjectives (insert “and,” swap) • Rachel lived a long, happy life. • We were prepared for a long, tedious planning session. • The former secret agent had to change her identity. • Items in dates and addresses • The house at 100 Main Street, Rome, GA 21210, was sold today. • My son was born on January 5, 1976, in Chicago, Illinois. • It was on January 5 that my son was born. • In July 1999, we went to Italy.