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Lecture 1: Eye Anatomy. Liana Al-Labadi, O.D. Eye Anatomy. Eye Anatomy. The orbital bone The eye socket Formed by: Cheekbone Forehead Temple Side of nose Eye is cushioned within orbit by pads of fat Lacrimal gland Produces tears Tears drain through the nasolacrimal duct.

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Lecture 1 eye anatomy

Lecture 1: Eye Anatomy

Liana Al-Labadi, O.D.

Eye anatomy
Eye Anatomy


Eye anatomy1
Eye Anatomy

  • The orbital bone

    • The eye socket

    • Formed by:

      • Cheekbone

      • Forehead

      • Temple

      • Side of nose

    • Eye is cushioned within orbit by pads of fat

  • Lacrimal gland

    • Produces tears

    • Tears drain through the nasolacrimal duct



Eye anatomy2
Eye Anatomy

  • Eyelids (L):

    • Protection:

      • Protects eye from foreign matter (dust, dirt, debris)

      • Protects against bright light that might damage the eye

    • Help spread tears over surface of eye- moist & comfort

  • Eyelashes (L):

    • Filter out foreign matter

      • prevent it from getting into eye


Eye anatomy3
Eye Anatomy

  • Conjunctiva (Conj):

    • Thin, clear layer of skin

    • Covering of the front of eye

    • Covers the sclera and the inside of the eyelids

    • Function:

      • Keeps bacteria and foreign material from getting behind eye


Eye anatomy4
Eye Anatomy

  • Sclera (S):

    • “White of the eye”

    • Tough, opaque tissue that extends around the eye

    • Surrounds the eye and gives the eye its shape

    • The sclera is attached to the extraocular muscles


Eye anatomy5
Eye Anatomy

  • Extraocular Muscles

    • 6 extraocular muscles that are attached to each eye

    • Help move the eye left, right, up, down and diagonally

    • These 6 muscles are:

      • Superior rectus

      • Inferior rectus

      • Medial rectus

      • Lateral rectus

      • Inferior oblique

      • Superior oblique


Eye anatomy6
Eye Anatomy

  • Cornea (K):

    • Clear layer at the front & center of eye

    • Located in front of the iris (colored part of eye)

    • Function:

      • Focus light as it enters eye

    • Avascular

      • Only organ that has no blood vessels


Eye anatomy7
Eye Anatomy

  • Anterior Chamber (AC):

    • Fluid-filled space

    • Behind the cornea & in front of the iris

    • Fluid = Aqueous humor (AH)

      • AH helps nourish the cornea & the lens


  • http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/angleclosureetc.htm

Eye anatomy8
Eye Anatomy

  • Pupil (P):

    • Central opening of iris

  • Iris (I):

    • Ring shaped tissue

    • Colored part of eye

    • Controls the amount of light that enters the eye

  • Two muscle fibers:

    • Contraction

      • Constricts pupil in bright light

    • Dilation

      • Dilates pupil in dark


  • http://www.goodhope.org.uk/departments/eyedept/angleclosureetc.htm

Eye anatomy9
Eye Anatomy

  • Anterior Chamber Angle

    • Located where the cornea meets the iris

    • Trabecular Meshwork

      • Site where aqueous humor drains out of eye

      • If AH cannot properly drain out

        • Pressure build up inside eye

          • Causes optic nerve damage & evetually vision loss = glaucoma


Eye anatomy10
Eye Anatomy

  • Posterior Chamber (PC):

    • Fluid-filled space

      • Aqueous Humor!

    • Immediately behind the iris but infront of the lens


Eye anatomy11
Eye Anatomy

  • Crystalline Lens:

    • Clear, flexible structure

    • Behind the iris & pupil

    • Surrounded by a ring of muscular tissue – ciliary body

    • The lens & ciliary body help control fine focusing of light as it passes through the eye


Eye anatomy12
Eye Anatomy

  • Vitreous Chamber:

    • Located behind the lens & in front of the retina

    • Filled with a gel-like fluid called the vitreous humor

    • The vitreous help maintain the shape of the eye


Eye anatomy13
Eye Anatomy

  • Retina:

    • Acts like the film in a camera to create an image

    • Consists of a specialized layer of cells

    • Converts light signals into nerve signal then send these signals to the optic nerve

      • Optic nerve carries the signals to the brain

      • The brain helps process the image

    • Rods- low light situations

    • Cones- allows you to see color



Eye anatomy14
Eye Anatomy

  • Macula

    • Located in the central part of the retina

    • Responsible for giving sharp central vision

    • Used for reading, recognizing faces, and watching TV

    • Any disease that affects the macula will cause a change & impairment in the central vision


Eye anatomy15
Eye Anatomy

  • Choroid

    • A layer of tissue that is:

      • Located under the retina

      • Separates retina & sclera

    • Mostly made up of blood vessels

    • Helps nourish the retina by carrying the blood supply to the eye’s internal structures


Eye anatomy16
Eye Anatomy

  • Optic Nerve

    • A bundle of 1 million nerve fibers

    • Responsible for transmitting nerve signals from the eye to the brain

    • The optic disc is the front surface of the optic nerve

      • The optic disc is visible on the retina