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Writing the Research Paper Using Citations and Quotations English 9 Mrs. Zaso. What to cite?. Information found in research, and then paraphrased in own words Direct quotes pulled from research and used in paper

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Writing the Research Paper Using Citations and Quotations English 9 Mrs. Zaso


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    1. Writing the Research PaperUsing Citations and QuotationsEnglish 9Mrs. Zaso

    2. What to cite? • Information found in research, and then paraphrased in own words • Direct quotes pulled from research and used in paper • Another writer’s ideas or thoughts about a particular topic that you did not come up with on your own • Terms, definitions, concepts that are not common knowledge

    3. In-Text Citations • Also known as parenthetical citations • References in text MUST point to specific sources in works cited (MATCH!) • Any title on works cited page MUST be cited in paper • Any title cited in paper MUST be on works cited page

    4. In-Text Citations • Use author’s last name (if known) and page number (if known) Ex: Although abstract art deems itself confusing to most viewers, nearly all artists claim that their emotion can be felt when viewing the painting or sculpture (Hamlin 24). * Punctuation goes AFTER the citation.

    5. In-Text Citations • With unknown or no page numbers, just use author’s name • Do NOT put a comma between author and page number like this… (Williams, 27). Ex: After a single bone injury, the risk for future injury is greatly increased, particularly when the original injury does not heal properly (Marks). (Example with no pg #)

    6. In-Text Citations • When author is unknown, use title or shortened version of title • Be sure to punctuate title properly – match punctuation on works cited page (What is it? Book? Article? Poem?) Article Ex: Golf is considered the safest sport because it imposes a very low risk of bodily injury to its athletes (“Benefits of Golf” 47). Source cited is an article – put in quotes in citation!

    7. In-Text Citations • When author is unknown and title is very long, shorten the title in citation, using first word of title • Book Title name: Brain Tumors and the Direct Correlation to Seizures Book Example: Research has proven that the early detection of a brain tumor can decrease the likeliness of seizures in a patient (Brain Tumors 82). *Source cited is a book – Use italics in citation!

    8. Using Direct Quotations • Effective when used selectively • Quote ONLY what is particularly apt, interesting, or unique (words, phrases, passages, etc.) • DO NOT OVERQUOTE! • Lack of knowledge • Unoriginal thinker • Unskillful writer • Boring construction

    9. Using Direct Quotations • Accuracy within quotes is a MUST (spelling, capitalization, punctuation, wording, etc.) • Do not “drop” quotes! • Use signal phrases to introduce quotations Ex: Although many believe that anorexia is easily curable, “most eating disorder survivors argue that the disease has addictive qualities, which make it difficult to overcome” (Smith 13).

    10. Using Direct Quotations • Only put quotation marks around the words, lines, punctuation, etc. that are being quoted • When integrating quotations, a colon, no punctuation, or a comma may precede the quotation Ex: Shelley held a bold view: “Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the World” (Meyer 213). Ex: Shelley thought poets to be the “unacknowledged legislators of the World” (Meyer 213). Ex: According to Shelley, “Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the World” (Meyer 213).

    11. Using Direct Quotations • Punctuation NOT a part of original quote should remain OUTSIDE of quotation marks • If quote or sentence ends in question mark or exclamation point, period outside of citation should still be present Ex: He declared, “I believe taxation without representation is tyranny!” (Goodwin 118). Ex: How dare they attack “taxation without representation”! (Goodwin 118).

    12. Using Direct Quotations • Be careful! Is the punctuation YOURS or part of the original quote? Ex: Did he attack “taxation without representation”? (Goodwin 118). Ex: As the legislation was debated, Mr. Smith asked a very important question: “How will we enforce taxation without representation?” (Goodwin 118).

    13. Citations and Quotations • If you are UNSURE of what to do – ASK! • There are MANY different situations that can arise when you are writing – DO NOT ASSUME* * We all know what happens when you assume…