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Writing the Research Paper Using Citations and Quotations English 9 Mrs. Zaso. What to cite?. Information found in research, and then paraphrased in own words Direct quotes pulled from research and used in paper
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Writing the Research PaperUsing Citations and QuotationsEnglish 9Mrs. Zaso
What to cite? • Information found in research, and then paraphrased in own words • Direct quotes pulled from research and used in paper • Another writer’s ideas or thoughts about a particular topic that you did not come up with on your own • Terms, definitions, concepts that are not common knowledge
In-Text Citations • Also known as parenthetical citations • References in text MUST point to specific sources in works cited (MATCH!) • Any title on works cited page MUST be cited in paper • Any title cited in paper MUST be on works cited page
In-Text Citations • Use author’s last name (if known) and page number (if known) Ex: Although abstract art deems itself confusing to most viewers, nearly all artists claim that their emotion can be felt when viewing the painting or sculpture (Hamlin 24). * Punctuation goes AFTER the citation.
In-Text Citations • With unknown or no page numbers, just use author’s name • Do NOT put a comma between author and page number like this… (Williams, 27). Ex: After a single bone injury, the risk for future injury is greatly increased, particularly when the original injury does not heal properly (Marks). (Example with no pg #)
In-Text Citations • When author is unknown, use title or shortened version of title • Be sure to punctuate title properly – match punctuation on works cited page (What is it? Book? Article? Poem?) Article Ex: Golf is considered the safest sport because it imposes a very low risk of bodily injury to its athletes (“Benefits of Golf” 47). Source cited is an article – put in quotes in citation!
In-Text Citations • When author is unknown and title is very long, shorten the title in citation, using first word of title • Book Title name: Brain Tumors and the Direct Correlation to Seizures Book Example: Research has proven that the early detection of a brain tumor can decrease the likeliness of seizures in a patient (Brain Tumors 82). *Source cited is a book – Use italics in citation!
Using Direct Quotations • Effective when used selectively • Quote ONLY what is particularly apt, interesting, or unique (words, phrases, passages, etc.) • DO NOT OVERQUOTE! • Lack of knowledge • Unoriginal thinker • Unskillful writer • Boring construction
Using Direct Quotations • Accuracy within quotes is a MUST (spelling, capitalization, punctuation, wording, etc.) • Do not “drop” quotes! • Use signal phrases to introduce quotations Ex: Although many believe that anorexia is easily curable, “most eating disorder survivors argue that the disease has addictive qualities, which make it difficult to overcome” (Smith 13).
Using Direct Quotations • Only put quotation marks around the words, lines, punctuation, etc. that are being quoted • When integrating quotations, a colon, no punctuation, or a comma may precede the quotation Ex: Shelley held a bold view: “Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the World” (Meyer 213). Ex: Shelley thought poets to be the “unacknowledged legislators of the World” (Meyer 213). Ex: According to Shelley, “Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the World” (Meyer 213).
Using Direct Quotations • Punctuation NOT a part of original quote should remain OUTSIDE of quotation marks • If quote or sentence ends in question mark or exclamation point, period outside of citation should still be present Ex: He declared, “I believe taxation without representation is tyranny!” (Goodwin 118). Ex: How dare they attack “taxation without representation”! (Goodwin 118).
Using Direct Quotations • Be careful! Is the punctuation YOURS or part of the original quote? Ex: Did he attack “taxation without representation”? (Goodwin 118). Ex: As the legislation was debated, Mr. Smith asked a very important question: “How will we enforce taxation without representation?” (Goodwin 118).
Citations and Quotations • If you are UNSURE of what to do – ASK! • There are MANY different situations that can arise when you are writing – DO NOT ASSUME* * We all know what happens when you assume…