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Luke, Parables, & Songs. Luke . Written for a Greco-Roman Audience Luke emphasizes that Jesus and his disciples, working under the Holy Spirit, are innocent of any crime against Rome and that their religion is a universal faith intended for all people Enlarged nativity account (Luke 1-2)

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Luke

  • Written for a Greco-Roman Audience

  • Luke emphasizes that Jesus and his disciples, working under the Holy Spirit, are innocent of any crime against Rome and that their religion is a universal faith intended for all people

  • Enlarged nativity account (Luke 1-2)

  • Enlarged journey to Jerusalem (9:51-18:14)

  • Enlarged post resurrection (ch 24)


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Luke’s Historical Vision

  • Author of Luke-Acts brings the larges historical vision to the NT.

  • Like other Hellenist historians, Luke preserved facts and interpreted their significance.

  • Traces the religious origins in Bethlehem, to its ongoing status at the end of Acts and a legitimate faith in the Roman world.

  • Luke views John the Baptist as both the last of Israel’s prophets and the forerunner of the Messiah. He intertwines John’s birth with Jesus.

  • Luke Makes Jesus’ life the center of a three-part drama

    • Israel --- Jesus --- Christian Church

  • No apocalyptic end (no talking about the end of the world as imminent)

    • Instead, Luke shows a new beginning.

  • Jesus’ ministry represents a new beginning that establishes a heightened awareness of God’s intentions for humanity.

  • Thus, Jesus’ resurrection is tied to the disciples’ job of evangelizing the worlds (24:44-53, Acts 1:1-8)

  • Shows the world entering a new historical epoch, the age of the church.


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Authorship

  • Possibly a physician that accompanied Paul (Col 4:14, Philemon 24, 2 Tim 4:11)

  • Luke did not know Jesus

  • He is very interested in the mission to the Gentiles

  • His Greek is very fluent. He has the largest vocabulary and most polished style. Possible a Gentile, which would make him the only non-Jewish writer in the Bible.

  • Composes between 73-95

  • Possibly in Ephesus

  • Written to a Greek-speaking Gentile audience.


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Context of Luke

  • Preface:Luke begins with a formal statement of purpose

  • Luke is very aware of other gospels written before his, but he apparently wasn’t satisfied.

  • He uses about 50% of Mark

  • He edits Mark more than Matthew

  • His arrangements emphasize particular themes

    • In Mark, Jesus’ rejection at Nazareth comes halfway through Jesus’ time in Galilee,

    • But Luke puts it at the beginning and adds that the residents of Nazareth attempted to kill Jesus (foreshadowing Jesus’ later death).


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Special to Luke

Parables

  • Prodigal Son (15:11-32)

  • Good Samaritan

  • Lost Coin (15:8-10)

  • The persistent widow (10:29-32)

  • Lazarus and the Rich man (16:19-31)

    Teachings

  • These and other parables typically stress life’s unexpected reversals and/or God’s gracious forgiveness of wrongdoers.

  • Includes some of Jesus’ hard sayings about the cost of discipleship.

  • The Good shepherd: Luke has been accused of “sentimentalizing” Jesus’ message, but the author's concern for oppressed people—the poor, the socially outcast, and women—genuinely gives his gospel a distinctively humane and gracious ambience.

    Typical Themes in Luke

  • Emphasis on prayer, forgiveness, compassion, interest in the poor, concern for women, the active role of the Holy Spirit, God’s direction of human history, the universality of Jesus’ messiahship and the new religion’s positive relationship with the Greco-Roman world.

Jesus as the Good Shepherd from the early Christian catacomb of Domitilla (Crypt of Lucina - 200 CE).


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Luke’s Arrangement

  • Two major insertions of material into Mark’s account (besides different birth and Postresurrection accounts)

    1. (6:20-8:3)

    • Luke’s Sermon on the plain (6:20-49)

    • Unlike Matthew, Luke scatters Jesus’ Q saying throughout his account

      2. (9:51-18:14) Jesus teaching on the road to Jerusalem. This is all Q source and L source material.

  • Many of Jesus’ miracles echo those of the prophets Elijah and Elisha (1 Kings 17-19, 2 Kings 1-6)

  • Luke introduces the Elijah-Elisha theme earlier (4:23-28) indicating that for him these ancient men of God were prototypes of the Messiah.


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    The Beginning of the Galilean Ministry

    14 Then Jesus, filled with the power of the Spirit, returned to Galilee, and a report about him spread through all the surrounding country. 15He began to teach in their synagogues and was praised by everyone.

    The Rejection of Jesus at Nazareth

    16 When he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, he went to the synagogue on the Sabbath day, as was his custom. He stood up to read, 17and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was given to him. He unrolled the scroll and found the place where it was written: 18‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,   because he has anointed me     to bring good news to the poor.He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives   and recovery of sight to the blind,     to let the oppressed go free, 19to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favour.’ 20And he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. 21Then he began to say to them, ‘Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.’ 22All spoke well of him and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his mouth. They said, ‘Is not this Joseph’s son?’ 23He said to them, ‘Doubtless you will quote to me this proverb, “Doctor, cure yourself!” And you will say, “Do here also in your home town the things that we have heard you did at Capernaum.” ’ 24And he said, ‘Truly I tell you, no prophet is accepted in the prophet’s home town. 25But the truth is, there were many widows in Israel in the time of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up for three years and six months, and there was a severe famine over all the land; 26yet Elijah was sent to none of them except to a widow at Zarephath in Sidon. 27There were also many lepers in Israel in the time of the prophet Elisha, and none of them was cleansed except Naaman the Syrian.’ 28When they heard this, all in the synagogue were filled with rage. 29They got up, drove him out of the town, and led him to the brow of the hill on which their town was built, so that they might hurl him off the cliff. 30But he passed through the midst of them and went on his way.


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    Parables

    • Two of Jesus most well-known parables are found only in Luke

    • The Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37)

    • The Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32)

    • What do these stories tell us about what the author believes Jesus wants to tell or how people should act or think?


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    The Good Samaritan

    • Luke 10:25-28 introduces the parable

    • A Torah expert defines the essence of the Mosaic Law in the twin commandments to Love God (Deut 6:5) and Love neighbor (Lev 19:18)

    • In Mark, this dialogue is in the Temple, In Luke, it is on the road to Jerusalem.

    • Luke uses this dialogue to introduce this parable by having the Torah expert ask Jesus about the question of “who is my neighbor?”


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    The Subversive Samaritan Story

    • A Samaritan is a moral hero

      • Listeners are asked to find nobility in a group of people they despise.

      • Both the priest and the Levite who did not help the victim, did so in observance of Torah rules. (If the victim was dead, they would have become unclean and would be unable to perform their duties.

    • This story is typically Lukan because of the reversal.

      • The person regarded as an unclean foreigner and heretic becomes the model to emulate.

      • The Samaritan ignores religious and racial barriers, recognizing the Jew as his neighbor, thereby fulfilling the Torah commands that the legal expert had cited.


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    See the robbers escaping.

    Notice the two men walking away in the distance.

    The Samaritan barely touches the man. And the man doesn’t look too bad. Maybe he’s just napping?

    The Good Samaritan ; Julius Schnorr von CAROLSFELD ; 1851-60; engraving from « Bibel in Bildern »


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    This Samaritan puts his whole body into helping the man get to his feet.

    The lighting makes the scene ominous. The victim looks quite helpless.

    What do you think of the red shirt?

    The Good Samaritan ; Julius Schnorr von CAROLSFELD ; 1851-60; engraving from « Bibel in Bildern »


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    Van Gogh creates his own version of DeLaCroix famous painting. The victim is like a child.

    The Good Samaritan; Eugène DELACROIX; 1849; oil on canvas; private collection.

    The Good Samaritan; Vincent van GOGH after Eugène DELACROIX; 1890; oil on canvas; Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Holland


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    This wounded man does not look too good. Is it too late? painting. The victim is like a child.

    The Samaritan takes time tending to his wounds before loading him on his horse.

    The Good Samaritan; Lucas GIORDANO; 1685; oil on canvas; Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen, France


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    Some Modern interpretations painting. The victim is like a child.

    An African design. Was the wounded man attacked, or is he starving?

    An emergency medical worker.


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    The familiar story is used ironically to criticize some Americans’ views toward Latin Americans and foreigners in general.


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    How can you be a good Samaritan? Americans’ views toward Latin Americans and foreigners in general.

    • The parable of the Good Samaritan is one of the most famous in the Gospels and now the term “good Samaritan” corresponds to a person who spontaneously comes to help another person in difficulty; yet the word sometimes takes a slightly pejorative value as if a person overdid it.

    • You will “love your neighbour as yourself” (Luke 10:27). Whereas the adjective indicates only proximity, the noun is restricted to the moral domain. The neighbour is the one who is regarded as so close that he is like a fellow being.

      • Does this mean to love people, simply because they are physically near to you?


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    The Prodigal Son Americans’ views toward Latin Americans and foreigners in general. (Lk 15:11-32)

    • The forgiving father is, perhaps, the real focus.

    • The younger son violates the most basic laws of Judaism, squandering his inheritance and finally living with pigs, the lowest animal. (consider pig keepers in folk stories)

    • This kid is as undeserving as possible. Even his desire to return home is for eating better food

    • The father is the real focus because of his unlimited love for both sons.

    • Older son is acknowledged but asked to understand that the father loves the deserving and undeserving equally.

    • The conclusion is unresolved. Will the older son overcome his natural resentment and join the celebration?


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    What You Can See in These Pictures? Americans’ views toward Latin Americans and foreigners in general.

    • A young, ill-clad man kneels down before an old man, his father.

    • the father's face and gesture indicate the he receives him with joy, without any reproach.

    • The father is very old and his clothes show his wealth. Filled with happiness by the return of his son, the father has a banquet prepared. One can sometimes see the preparations of the feast, in particular a fatted calf ready to be killed.

    • The son is generally in rags or a poor man’s shirt.

    • Servants are often seen bringing clean clothes

    • The elder son is often seen, jealous of the welcome given his brother. He can bring to mind Esau’s return after Isaac blesses Jacob.

    • The parable is rich in images and other moments can also be depicted: the happy son spending his money in the company of prostitutes; the unhappy son repenting while keeping pigs; the father waiting for his son coming back in the distance


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    Note the meal walking in on the left. Americans’ views toward Latin Americans and foreigners in general.

    The older son is talking with a servant. What is his attitude? What is he saying or asking?

    White clad figure in the back is vaguely angelic.

    The Return of the Prodigal Son; Bartolomeo MURILLO; 1670; oil on canvas; National Gallery of Art, Washington


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    Notice how much the father looks like many traditional images of God.

    We can also see that heaven is blessing this reunion.

    How is the older brother reacting?

    The Prodigal Son; Julius Schnorr van CAROLSFELD; 1851-60; engraving from « Bibel in Bildern ».


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    Rebrandt makes the father blind which gives more depth to the meeting.

    The focus here is on the joy which servants and dogs also share. The father is thanking God.

    The Return of the Prodigal Son; REMBRANDT; 1662; oil on canvas; The Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

    The Return of the Prodigal Son; Gustave DORÉ; 1865; engraving from the “Holy Bible”.


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    The setting fits 19 the meeting.th century England.

    Background elements represent different parts of the story and show the who cycle.

    The Return; Jacques TISSOT; 1882 oil on canvas; National Gallery of Art, Washington


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    An interesting combination of the old and new. Again, heaven is blessing the reunion.

    Ron DiCianni 1982


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    The Rebel Jesus: Jackson Brown is blessing the reunion.

    Do you think the theme of this song fits more with Matthew’s or Luke’s ideas of Jesus? Why? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCsLtsn_Z70

    • All the streets are filled with laughter and lightAnd the music of the seasonAnd the merchants' windows are all brightWith the faces of the childrenAnd the families hurrying to their homesWhile the sky darkens and freezesWill be gathering around the hearths and tablesGiving thanks for God's gracesAnd the birth of the rebel Jesus


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    The Rebel Jesus: Jackson Brown is blessing the reunion.

    • Well they call him by 'the Prince of Peace'And they call him by 'the Savior'And they pray to him upon the seasAnd in every bold endeavorAnd they fill his churches with their pride and goldAs their faith in him increasesBut they've turned the nature that I worship inFrom a temple to a robber's denIn the words of the rebel Jesus


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    The Rebel Jesus: Jackson Brown is blessing the reunion.

    • Well we guard our world with locks and gunsAnd we guard our fine possessionsAnd once a year when Christmas comesWe give to our relationsAnd perhaps we give a little to the poorIf the generosity should seize usBut if any one of us should interfereIn the business of why there are poorThey get the same as the rebel Jesus


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    The Rebel Jesus: Jackson Brown is blessing the reunion.

    • Now pardon me if I have seemedTo take the tone of judgementFor I've no wish to come betweenThis day and your enjoymentIn a life of hardship and of earthly toilThere's a need for anything that frees usSo I bid you pleasureAnd I bid you cheerFrom a heathen and a paganOn the side of the rebel Jesus


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    Jesus Walks: is blessing the reunion.Kanye Westhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8AyHupByuU

    • Yo, We at warWe at war with terrorism, racism, and most of all we at war with ourselves(Jesus Walks)God show me the way because the Devil trying to break me down(Jesus Walks with me) with me, with me, with me [fades]

    • You know what the Midwest is?Young & RestlessWhere restless (Niggas) might snatch your necklaceAnd next these (Niggas) might jack your LexusSomebody tell these (Niggas) who Kanye West isI walk through the valley of the shadow of death isTop floor the view alone will leave you breathless Uhhhh!Try to catch it Uhhhh! It's kinda hard hardGetting choked by the detectives yeah yeah now check the methodThey be asking us questions, harass and arrest usSaying "we eat pieces of shit like you for breakfast"Huh? Yall eat pieces of shit? What's the basis?We ain't going nowhere but got suits and casesA trunk full of coke rental car from AvisMy momma used to say only Jesus can save usWell momma I know I act a foolBut I'll be gone 'til November I got packs to move I Hope

    How does this rap artist interpret Jesus? Why does he say that he needs Jesus? What does he think Jesus can do for him?


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    • [Hook x2] is blessing the reunion.(Jesus Walks)God show me the way because the Devil trying to break me down(Jesus Walks with me)The only thing that that I pray is that my feet don't fail me now(Jesus Walks)And I don't think there is nothing I can do now to right my wrongs(Jesus Walks with me)I want to talk to God but I'm afraid because we ain't spoke in so long


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    • To the hustlers, killers, murderers, drug dealers even the strippers(Jesus walks with them)To the victims of Welfare for we living in hell here hell yeah(Jesus walks with them)Now hear ye hear ye want to see Thee more clearlyI know he hear me when my feet get wearyCause we're the almost nearly extinctWe rappers are role models we rap we don't thinkI ain't here to argue about his facial featuresOr here to convert atheists into believersI'm just trying to say the way school need teachersThe way Kathie Lee needed Regis that's the way I need JesusSo here go my single dog radio needs thisThey say you can rap about anything except for JesusThat means guns, sex, lies, video tapesBut if I talk about God my record won't get played Huh?Well let this take away from my spinsWhich will probably take away from my endsThen I hope this take away from my sinsAnd bring the day that I'm dreaming aboutNext time I'm in the club everybody screaming out

    • (Jesus Walks)God show me the way because the devil trying to break me down(Jesus Walks)The only thing that that I pray is that my feet don't fail me now(Jesus Walks)And I don't thing there's nothing I can do now to right my wrongs(Jesus walks with me... fades)I want to talk to God but I'm afraid because we ain't spoke in so long


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    Jesus Was a Capricorn strippersKris Kristofferson

    • Jesus was a Capricorn, he ate organic foods.He believed in love and peace and never wore no shoes.Long hair, beard and sandals and a funky bunch of friends.Reckon they'd just nail him up if He come down again.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofzCZiQ9vjA&feature=related

    This song is sometimes said to be talking about a “hippie Jesus”

    Certainly, it emphasizes Jesus’ radical way of life while it doesn’t focus on his words or specific teachings.

    Part of Jesus’ messiahship or meant allowing people to look down on him and mock him.


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    • 'Cos everybody's got to have somebody to look down on. strippersWho they can feel better than at anytime they please.Someone doin' somethin' dirty, decent folks can frown on.If you can't find nobody else, then help yourself to me.

    • Get back, John!

    • Egg Head's cousin Red Neck's cussin' hippies for their hair.Others laugh at straights who laugh at freaks who laugh at squares.Some folks hate the whites who hate the blacks who hate the clan.Most of us hate anything that we don't understand.

    • 'Cos everybody's got to have somebody to look down on.Who they can feel better than at anytime they please.Someone doin' somethin' dirty, decent folks can frown on.If you can't find nobody else, then help yourself to me.

    • Help yourself, brother. Help yourself, Gentlemen. Help yourself Reverend.