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Gendered Lives, Eighth Edition PowerPoint Presentation
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Gendered Lives, Eighth Edition

Gendered Lives, Eighth Edition

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Gendered Lives, Eighth Edition

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    1. Gendered Lives, Eighth Edition Chapter 8 Gendered Education: Communication in Schools

    2. Gendered Education: Communication in Schools Historically, girls had less educational opportunity Now much discrimination eliminated Schools still marked by gendered dynamics

    3. Academics Males and females encounter gendered expectations in schools

    4. Academics Boys developmentally disadvantaged in early school environment Feminine environments Adult females outnumber adult males Boys have less impulse control difficulty adjusting to school

    5. Academics Time of frustration and failure

    6. Academics Males lag behind females in all levels of schooling Biology contributes to males slower development of verbal skills Males more likely to drop out of high school

    7. Academics Females success reflects cognitive ability and good study skills and habits Gap expands after high school Females likely to attend college Race and socio-economic class also linked to success in higher education

    8. Academics Personal choices affect academic performance Studying or engaging in recreation

    9. Academics Schooling reproduces gender stereotypes Men not encouraged to enter feminine fields Sex combines with race to further disadvantage males African American males targets of teacher disapproval drop out in higher numbers

    10. Academics Females perform better at all levels of education Earn more and higher degrees than males

    11. Academics Belief females have less ability in math helped erect barriers Females drop out of math Encounter faculty and peers who believe women are less able Affect self-confidence and how perform on tasks

    12. Academics Women may face gender-related barriers in fields such as engineering Social disapproval Assertiveness needed in field may be counter to social prescriptions for femininity

    13. Academics Sex-related differences in brains and hormones give males edge in math and science Higher mean averages for males come from a few males Innate differences less important than social influences in the U.S. Not true in all cultures

    14. Academics African American girls are encouraged to be more active May encounter stereotypes and be encouraged to be less assertive and autonomous when in school

    15. Gendered-Stereotyped Curricula Curriculum content is less biased than in past But gender stereotypes persist Accounts of war focus on battles and leaders Womens contributions on home front seldom noted

    16. Gendered-Stereotyped Curricula Women highlighted in curricula: Women who fit traditional stereotypes Betsy Ross Women who distinguished self on mens terms Ella Baker

    17. Gendered-Stereotyped Curricula Epochs taught in terms of effects on men Neglect impact on women and minorities

    18. Gendered-Stereotyped Curricula Science has gender stereotypes that distort how taught Sexism in education intersects with other forms of discrimination Minorities underrepresented in educational materials

    19. Gendered-Stereotyped Curricula Curriculum diminishes education Students deprived of understanding how half the population experiences the world Encourages men to see themselves as able to fulfill ambitions and women not able to

    20. Athletics Female students have unprecedented athletic opportunities Due in part to Title IX Playing field not even Number of female athletes in college has not increased proportionately

    21. Athletics Prior to Title IX, most coaches of womens sports were women Today fewer womens sports coached by women Division I colleges pay male coaches more than women coaches Only 37 percent of expenses for athletics allocated to women

    22. Athletics 2005: Supreme Court ruling regarding Title IX: All colleges required to send students survey about athletic interests and abilities If dont reply, may assume satisfied with policies

    23. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Peers exercise strong influence on gender attitudes and identities Acceptance by peers higher when children conform to gender stereotypes

    24. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Males more insistent boys do boy things than females are that girls do girl things Gender socialization more rigid for boys

    25. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Boys learn they have to be strong and tough to fit in Learn they must not show signs of femininity Reinforces message masculine is more valuable than feminine

    26. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Male bonding in peer groups reinforces masculine identification Often engage in drinking and sexual activity

    27. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Fraternities encourage brothers to embody extreme versions of masculinity Desire to be accepted overshadows values and sense of decency

    28. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Female peer groups reinforce identity in girls Male students jeer, make lewd suggestions, touch them without consent

    29. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Faculty treat women students in gender-stereotyped ways These actions tell women students they are not taken seriously

    30. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Women in college feel two sets of pressures: Be successful as feminine woman Be smart and academically successful

    31. Gender Socialization in Peer Cultures Relentless pressure to achieve effortless perfection Undergraduate women feel overwhelmed by expectations

    32. Single-Sex Educational Programs Single-sex schools may solve some of these problems Heterosexual males more likely to make academics priority in single-sex schools

    33. Single-Sex Educational Programs Disproportionate number of women in Congress and running top businesses graduated from womens colleges

    34. Single-Sex Educational Programs Critics argue sex-segregated education isnt answer Better solution is make sure teachers in all schools treat students equally Single-sex schools tend to be private and charge tuition

    35. Gendered Expectations & Pressures Facing Faculty Gender stereotypes also affect faculty members Gender biases and barriers greater for women faculty than for women students

    36. Gendered Hierarchies More prestigious the institution, greater proportion of male faculty Elementary schools vast majority women High schools imbalance less pronounced Colleges number of men increases

    37. Gendered Hierarchies Proportion of male and female faculty affect students Women and minority students have fewer role models If more men in administrative roles, students may infer its normal for men to hold positions of status

    38. Gender Bias in Evaluations Bias against women influences hiring decisions, performance reviews, promotion

    39. Gender Bias in Evaluations Women and minorities more likely to be hired when blind selection process Predominantly male hiring committees hire fewer female faculty

    40. Gender Bias in Evaluations Once hired, women continue to face bias Performance more closely scrutinized Judged by stricter standards Hard to be perceived as competent

    41. Gender Bias in Evaluations Men have to give more convincing demonstrations of incompetence Male candidates judged on promise Female candidates judged by accomplishments

    42. Gender Bias in Evaluations Invisible hand discrimination unwitting discrimination in applying policies that are not inherently biased Largely unconscious makes it difficult to eliminate

    43. Gender Bias in Evaluations Assertiveness in males taken as brilliance Assertiveness in females judged negatively Womens achievements - luck Mens achievements - competence

    44. Gender Bias in Evaluations Gender bias in evaluations has material consequences Discrepancies between salaries

    45. Gendered Policies & Expectations Institutions based on outdated family model Assume faculty committed to job dont have to worry about domestic life

    46. Gendered Policies & Expectations Early years require long hours These years usually coincide with ideal years for bearing children Women faculty find it challenging to be professionals and parents

    47. Gendered Policies & Expectations Faculty member who has child loses work time Tenure clock penalizes women Males penalized if career is not primary focus No paternity leave

    48. Gendered Policies & Expectations Due to small numbers, excessive service and mentoring responsibilities for women Contribute to overload on female faculty