Roger A. Freedman • William J. Kaufmann III
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Roger A. Freedman • William J. Kaufmann III. Universe Eighth Edition. CHAPTER 1 Astronomy and the Universe. Homework 1 Online quiz for Chapter 1 (see syllabus for URL) DUE Friday 9/3 by 5 PM. 1-1 What distinguishes the methods of science from other human activities

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Roger A. Freedman • William J. Kaufmann III

Universe

Eighth Edition

CHAPTER 1

Astronomy and the Universe


Slide2 l.jpg

Homework 1

Online quiz for Chapter 1 (see syllabus for URL)

DUE Friday 9/3 by 5 PM


By reading this chapter you will learn l.jpg

1-1 What distinguishes the methods of science from other

human activities

1-2 How exploring other planets provides insight into the origins of the solar system and the nature of our Earth

1-3 Stars have a life cycle—they form, evolve over millions or billions of years, and die

1-4 Stars are grouped into galaxies, which are found throughout the universe

1-5 How astronomers measure the positions and sizes of celestial objects

1-6 How to express very large or very small numbers in convenient notation

1-7 Why astronomers use different units to measure distances in space

1-8 What astronomy can tell us about our place in the universe

By reading this chapter, you will learn


Which of the following statements is true l.jpg
Which of the following statements is true?

  • A solar system may contain billions of stars.

  • Stars are spread out more or less uniformly throughout the Universe.

  • The Milky Way contains a variety of solar systems, stars, and galaxies.

  • A galaxy contains billions of stars.

  • A solar system contains billions of galaxies.

Q1.13


Which of the following statements is true6 l.jpg
Which of the following statements is true?

  • A solar system may contain billions of stars.

  • Stars are spread out more or less uniformly throughout the Universe.

  • The Milky Way contains a variety of solar systems, stars, and galaxies.

  • A galaxy contains billions of stars.

  • A solar system contains billions of galaxies.

Q1.13


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The separation between the two pointer stars of the Big Dipper is 5 degrees. What is this separation in arcminutes?

  • 50

  • 60

  • 300

  • 500

  • 18,000

Q1.4


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The separation between the two pointer stars of the Big Dipper is 5 degrees. What is this separation in arcminutes?

  • 50

  • 60

  • 300

  • 500

  • 18,000

A1.4


What lengths are most conveniently measured in units of nanometers 10 9 m l.jpg
What lengths are most conveniently measured in units of nanometers (10−9 m)?

  • Distances between the planets

  • Distances between cities on Earth

  • Dimensions of the human body

  • Wavelengths of visible light

  • Diameter of an atom

Q1.6


What lengths are most conveniently measured in units of nanometers 10 9 m17 l.jpg
What lengths are most conveniently measured in units of nanometers (10−9 m)?

  • Distances between the planets

  • Distances between cities on Earth

  • Dimensions of the human body

  • Wavelengths of visible light

  • Diameter of an atom

A1.6


What lengths are most conveniently measured in astronomical units au l.jpg
What lengths are most conveniently measured in astronomical units (AU)?

  • Distances on the Earth

  • Distances within the solar system

  • Distances between stars in our Galaxy

  • Distances between galaxies

  • Only the largest distances in the universe

Q1.5


What lengths are most conveniently measured in astronomical units au20 l.jpg
What lengths are most conveniently measured in astronomical units (AU)?

  • Distances on the Earth

  • Distances within the solar system

  • Distances between stars in our Galaxy

  • Distances between galaxies

  • Only the largest distances in the universe

A1.5


What is the approximate diameter of our galaxy the milky way l.jpg
What is the approximate diameter of our Galaxy, the Milky Way?

  • 50 × 106 km

  • 50 astronomical units

  • 50 light-years

  • 50 kiloparsecs

  • 10 million light-years

Q1.8


What is the approximate diameter of our galaxy the milky way23 l.jpg
What is the approximate diameter of our Galaxy, the Milky Way?

  • 50 × 106 km

  • 50 astronomical units

  • 50 light-years

  • 50 kiloparsecs

  • 10 million light-years

Q1.8


Key ideas l.jpg
Key Ideas Way?

  • Astronomy, Science, and the Nature of the Universe: The universe is comprehensible. The scientific method is a procedure for formulating hypotheses about the universe. These are tested by observation or experimentation in order to build consistent models or theories that accurately describe phenomena in nature.

  • Observations of the heavens have helped scientists discover some of the fundamental laws of physics. The laws of physics are in turn used by astronomers to interpret their observations.

  • The Solar System: Exploration of the planets provides information about the origin and evolution of the solar system, as well as about the history and resources of Earth.

  • Stars and Nebulae: Studying the stars and nebulae helps us learn about the origin and history of the Sun and the solar system.


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Key Ideas Way?

  • Galaxies: Observations of galaxies tell us about the origin and history of the universe.

  • Angular Measure: Astronomers use angles to denote the positions and sizes of objects in the sky. The size of an angle is measured in degrees, arcminutes, and arcseconds.

  • Powers-of-Ten Notation is a convenient shorthand system for writing numbers. It allows very large and very small numbers to be expressed in a compact form.

  • Units of Distance: Astronomers use a variety of distance units. These include the astronomical unit (the average distance from Earth to the Sun), the light-year (the distance that light travels in one year), and the parsec.


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