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Integrating ICT in Formative Assessment Rhiann Williamson, 3098 5475 Special Interest Group Research
Why focus on formative assessment? “Assessment is an essential component of learning and teaching, as it allows the quality of both teaching and learning to be judged and improved.” Redecker& Johannessen (2013) p 79 “Formative assessment is a central feature of the learning environment of the 21st century. Learners need substantial, regular and meaningful feedback; teachers need it in order to understand who is learning and how to orchestrate the learning process.” Redecker& Johannessen (2013) p 79
AITSL Standard 5 Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning • 5.1 Assess student learning • 5.2 Provide feedback to students on their learning • 5.3 Make consistent and comparable judgements • 5.4 Interpret student data • 5.5 Report on student achievement
Why focus on ICT? “Student teachers should be prepared to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) into their future teaching and learning practices.” Sang, Valcke, van Braak, & Tondeur (2010) p. 103 “... the way in which students are using computers in schools... [has] a stronger effect on scientific literacy than how often computers are accessed” Luu & Freeman (2011) p. 1072
AITSL Standards - ICT 2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Implement teaching strategies for using ICT to expand curriculum learning opportunities for students. 3.4 Select and use resources • Demonstrate knowledge of a range of resources, including ICT, that engage students in their learning. 4.5 Use ICT safely, responsibly and ethically • Demonstrate an understanding of the relevant issues and the strategies available to support the safe, responsible and ethical use of ICT in learning and teaching.
Key themes for pre-service teachers Key themes that need to be taught to preservice teachers about integrating ICT: • Aligning theory with practice • Using teacher educators as role models • Reflecting on attitudes about the role of technology in education • Learning technology by design • Collaborating with peers • Scaffolding authentic technology experiences • Moving from traditional assessment to continuous feedback Tondeuret al (2012) pp. 138-140
School Environment “the local conditions of schooling impact on teachers’ attempts to integrate these technologies in their classrooms... successful integration of ICT requires fundamental shifts in the core activities of schools.” Hayes (2007) p.385 “Evaluation of current use and integration level of technology in schools is important for policy-makers, school administrators and educators to make decisions about budget allocation, staff development and personnel development.” Summak, Samancioglu, & Baglibel (2010) p 1725
School Environment “There are six computing labs and 120 laptops on five trolleys...” My School (2014) para. 1 In our department there is one trolley with 32 laptops. On any given period of the day we can have every room teaching, which is approximately 5 classes. This means sharing. One trolley for one class in a week is not enough.
Programs You Can Use When You Have Access • I will now quickly demonstrate to the group how to use these programs I plan on utilising more when I become a graduate: • Bitesize • Oxford Digital • Socrative
Benefits of ICT Formative Assessment The benefits include: • Improvement of learner engagement • Development of a learning community • Foster a learner and assessment centred focus Gikandi, Morrow, & Davis (2011) p. 2333 • Creating records that can help make consistent and comparable judgements (AITSL 5.3) through for example: • self-test quiz tools (Socrative) • discussion forums (AITSL 4.3) • e-portfolios
Final Thoughts “What is key is not how we assess but what we do with the data we generate as a result of interventions which can be supported by technologies.” Pachler, Daly, Mor & Mellar, 2010, p719 “…no technology-based assessment is in itself formative, but almost any technology can be used in a formative way…” Pachler, et al. 2010, p720
References Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership Ltd (2014). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Education Services Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/standards/list Berte, B., West, M., & Duncan, C. (2014) Socrative. Mastery Connect. Retrieved from: http://www.socrative.com British Broadcasting Corporation. (2014) GSCE Bitesize. BBC. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ Cash, S. (2012). Oxford Big Ideas Science 8: Australian Curriculum. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from Oxford Digital: https://obook2.oxforddigital.com.au/teacher/OB021/chunks/C0208.html Donnelly, D., McGarr, O., & O'Reilly, J. (2011). A framework for teachers’ integration of ICT into their classroom practice. Computers & Education. 57(1), 1469-1483. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.02.014 Gikandi, J. W., Morrow, D. & Davis, N. E. (2011). Online formative assessment in higher education: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 57(1), 2333-2351. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.06.004 Hayes, D. N. A. (2007). ICT and learning: Lessons from Australian classrooms. Computers & Education, 49(1), 385-395. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.09.003 Luu, K., & Freeman, J. G. (2011). An analysis of the relationship between information and communication technology (ICT) and scientific literacy in Canada and Australia. Computers & Education, 56(1), 1072-1082. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.11.008 Pachler, N., Daly, C., Mor, Y., & Mellar, H. (2010). Formative e-assessment: Practitioner cases. Computers & Education, 54(1), 715-721. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.032 Redecker, C. & Johannessen, O. (2013). Changing Assessment —Towards a New Assessment Paradigm Using ICT. European Journal of Education, 48(1), 79-96. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejed.12018/full Sang, G., Valcke M., van Braak, J., & Tondeur, J. (2010). Student teachers’ thinking processes and ICT integration: Predictors of prospective teaching behaviors with educational technology. Computers & Education, 54(1), 103-112. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.07.010 Summak, M. S., Samancioglu, M., & Baglibel, M. (2010). Technology integration and assesment in educational settings. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(1), 1725-1729. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.973 Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012) Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers & Education, 59(1), 134-144. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.009