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Map Link: Religious Divisions in France during the Wars of Religion: < http:// wps.ablongman.com / wps /media/objects/262/268312/ art/figures/KISH291.jpg >. Sources of Tension in 16th c. France: Relations of Valois kings with nobles and towns Discontented peasantry

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slide1

Map Link: Religious Divisions in France during the Wars of

Religion:

<http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268312/

art/figures/KISH291.jpg>

slide2

Sources of Tension in 16th c. France:

Relations of Valois kings with nobles and

towns

Discontented peasantry

Royal control of the church

Catholics vs. Calvinists (Huguenots)

slide3

Major players:

Valois kings (Catholic)

Noble families: Guise (Catholic),

Montmorency (Catholic),

Bourbon (Huguenot)

Catholics and Huguenots

slide4

1559 Death of Henry II of France (r. 1547-1559)

while jousting

Francis II (r. 1559-60)

Catherine de’ Medici (1519-89)

slide5

1560 Bourbon (Huguenot) conspiracy to kidnap

Francis II foiled. Francis dies and is

succeeded by Charles IX (r. 1560-74)

1562-72 Wars between Catholics and Huguenots

in France

24th Aug 1572 Scheduled date for peace

celebrations in France (St Bartholomew’s

Day)

Margaret of Valois Henry of Navarre

(Catholic) (Bourbon, Huguenot)

slide6

Gaspard de Coligny (Huguenot leader)

23rd Aug 1572 Charles IX orders extermination

of Huguenot leadership

24th Aug St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, led

by Henry of Guise

“Kill them, kill them all, it is the king’s

command!”

slide7

1574-89 Reign of Henry III as king of France

1576 Henry makes peace with Huguenots.

Catholic dévots (fanatics) form Catholic

League

politiques(moderates)

Michel de Montaigne(1533-92) Essays

slide8

1584 Death of Duke of Anjou (heir to throne).

Henry of Navarre becomes heir. Leads to…

War of the Three Henries (1585-89):

King Henry III of Valois (Catholic, “King”)

Henry of Guise (Catholic, “Guise”)

Henry of Navarre (Bourbon, Huguenot

“Navarre”)

slide9

1585 King initially allies with Navarre and Duke

of Montmorency vs. Guise, but switches sides

Catherine de’ Medici and Guise overturn

edicts tolerating Huguenots

1587 Navarre defeats King’s forces at Courtras

May 1588 Guise marches on Paris. Parisians

drive King out, make Guise “King of Paris.”

King makes Cardinal de Bourbon his heir

slide10

22nd Dec 1588 King has Guise killed

King allies with Navarre vs. Catholic League

1st Apr 1589 King killed. Navarre becomes king

Henry IV (r. 1589-1610)

slide11

1589-94 Henry IV defeats enemies, takes

control of France

1593 Henry IV reconverts to Catholicism, but

retains Huguenot counsellor Duke de Sully

(1560-1641)

“Paris is well worth a Mass.”

Marie de’ Medici (1573-1642)

slide12

1595-98 Henry IV fights war with Spain

1598 Last forces of Catholic League capitulate.

Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes

Economic reform

“Henri le Grand” (Henry the Great)

14th May 1610 Henry IV killed by monk

François Ravaillac

slide13

Louis XIII (r. 1610-43)

1617 Louis exiles Marie de’ Medici

1622 Louis completes suppression of rebellions

1624 Louis appoints Armand Jean du Plessis de

Richelieu as first minister

slide14

Extending royal power:

32 généralités (districts)

Subduing Huguenots and others

Opposing Spain in Thirty Years’ War (1618-48)

Defeating opponents

slide15

Strengthening French Monarchy:

Enhanced prestige of monarch

Improving financial health of kingdom

Asserting position on European stage

Asserting military power

Laying foundation for absolute monarchy

slide16

Jacques-Auguste de Thou (Thuanus, 1553-1617)

French statesman, bibliophile, historiographer

Studied law, but became canon of Notre Dame.

Served as councillor of state, then (in 1595),

became president of Paris parlement

slide17

Jacques-Auguste de Thou (Thuanus, 1553-1617)

1598 Negotiated Edict of Nantes

Opposed Council of Trent, persecuted by

Catholic Church

Historia sui Temporis (History of His Own

Time), banned by Catholic Church