The Jews and the Romans • Roman rule of Judaea led some Jews to oppose Rome peacefully, while others walked a different path and rebelled.
The Jews and the Romans • Suppose you were separated from your home and could not easily return to it. • What effect might this have on you and your family?
The Jews and the Romans • This is how the Jews felt when Rome forced them to leave their Capital City of Jerusalem.
The Jews and the Romans • During the 900’s B.C.E., two great kings, David and Solomon, united the Israelites and created the Kingdom of Israel. • The Israelites were the chosen people who God told Moses to save and get out of Egypt.
The Jews and the Romans • The Kingdom of Israel also created a beautiful capital city, Jerusalem
The Jews and the Romans • This unity did not last long, Israel divided into two Kingdoms: Israel and Judah. • These small kingdoms were later taken over by more powerful neighbors…ROME
The Jews and the Romans • Israel was destroyed and its people were scattered. The Jews, however, the people of Judah, survived.
Roman Rule • In 63 B.C.E. the Romans took over Judah…at first, they ruled through Jewish Kings. • Then in 6 C.E. Emperor Augustus turned Judah into a Roman province called Judaea.
Roman Rule • Instead of a King, a Roman governor called a Procurator ruled the new province on the Emperor’s behalf. This created anger and the people of Judaea argued among themselves over what to do about the Romans.
Roman Rule • Others opposed the Romans rule by closely following Jewish traditions. • While others turned their backs on Rome.
Roman Rule • These few who turned their backs on the Romans settled in isolated areas and shared their belongings with their community.
Roman Rule • Questions: • 1) What was the name of the capital city of Israel? • Jerusalem • 2) Emperor Augustus turned Judah into a Roman province called ___________? • Judaea • 3) What was the name for the Roman governor of this province? • Procurator
Rebellion • Some Jews believed that they should fight the Romans and take back control of their Kingdom. These people, called Zealots, convinced many Jews to take up arms against the Romans in 66 C.E.
Rebellion • The rebellion was brutally crushed by Rome. • The Romans destroyed the Jewish Temple and killed thousands of the Rebels.
Rebellion • In the Jewish religion a “Temple” or Synagogue is where worship takes place.
Rebellion • During this rebellion the Romans completely destroyed the second Jewish Temple…all that is left of the temple is the Western Wall.
Rebellion • The Western Wall is the retaining wall for the courtyard of the ancient temple…perhaps in modern terms, we would consider it something of a "curb" around a parking lot. It is the only structure remaining of the ancient Jewish temple…it is thought that you can write messages to god, and put them into the cracks of the wall and god will receive them.
Rebellion • The Battle of Masada: • Masada was originally built as a citadel on a huge peak near the Dead Sea.
Rebellion • After the Romans had defeated the Jewish uprising and had taken Jerusalem the Zealots, had retreated to Masada to avoid capture or death. • The Zealotshad good reason to believe they could hold out indefinitely at Masada, the cliffs were hundreds of feet high there were reservoirs of water and they had plenty of food.
Rebellion • After an initial failed attempt to take the fortress, the Romans settled down for a siege. They actually built a rampart up along one cliff wall, making their own pathway up against the walls of the fortress.
Rebellion • The Romans were then able to advance a battering ram up and eventually breached the wall. When the Romans entered Masada however, they found the defenders dead.
Rebellion • A Jewish general named Josephus fought in the war but later sided with the Romans gives us aprimary account of this event. He states that the defenders killed each other to avoid the sin of suicide.
Rebellion • Josephus wrote about the horrors of Jerusalem’s fall in his book called the History of the Jewish War…which can be purchased today
Rebellion • The Jews rebelled again in 132 C.E. and were once again defeated. This time the Romans forced all Jews to leave Jerusalem and banned them from ever returning to the city.
Rebellion • Saddened by the loss of their city Jerusalem, many Jews found new homes in other parts of Europe.
Rebellion • By 700 C.E., the Jews had set up communities as far west as Spain and as far east as central Asia. In later centuries, Jewish settlers throughout other parts of the world as well, even the United States.
Rebellion • In their new scattered communities, the Jewish people kept their faith alive by studying and following their religious laws. • They passed their knowledge down to their children and their religion survived.
Rebellion • Questions: • 4) What were the Jewish rebels who wanted to fight Rome called? • Zealots • 5) What happened during the first two Jewish rebellions? • They were crushed by the Romans • 6) 6)How did the Zealots die during the battle of Masada? • Killed each other, to avoid the sin of suicide. • 7) Why did the Jews have to leave Jerusalem? • The Romans banned them from ever returning • 8) What areas of the world did the Jewish people settle after the rebellions? • Europe, Asia…specifically Spain and the United States