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Chapter 8. Cellular Energy. Section 1. How Organisms Obtain Energy. Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy. All living organisms use energy to carry out all biological processes. Transformation of Energy Cellular processes require ____________ – the ability to do work.

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Cellular Energy

section 1

Section 1

How Organisms Obtain Energy

section 1 how organisms obtain energy
Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy

All living organisms use energy to carry out all biological processes.

slide4

Transformation of Energy

  • Cellular processes require ____________– the ability to do work.
  • _______________is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe.

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide5

Transformation of Energy

Laws of thermodynamics

  • First law—the law of conservation of energy: energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created nor ______________.
  • Second law: energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy, that is, _________________—disorder or unusable energy--increases.

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide6

Transformation of Energy

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

  • Directly or indirectly, nearly all the energy for life comes from the Sun.
  • _____________make their own food, either with energy from the sun or from inorganic substances.
  • ________________ingest other organisms to obtain energy.

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide7

Metabolism

  • All of the chemical reactions in a cell are referred to as the cell’s _________.
  • A series of chemical reactions in which the product of one is the substrate for the next is called a metabolic pathway.
    • _________pathways release energy by breaking down larger molecules.
    • _____________pathways use energy to build larger molecules.

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide8

Metabolism

  • ________________– anabolic pathway in which light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell
  • ___________________– catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide9

ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy

  • In living things, chemical energy is stored in biological molecules.
  • ___________________(ATP) is the most important biological molecule that provides chemical energy.

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide10

ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy

ATP structure

  • Most abundant ____________-carrier in cells
  • __________made of an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide11

ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy

ATP function

  • Releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken.
  • Transforms into a molecule called adenosine diphosphate (_____) and a free phosphate group.

How Organisms Obtain Energy

slide12
ATP
  • When chlorophyll absorbs light, it is absorbing energy
  • It stores it in the __________ of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
atp continued
ATP, continued.
  • Carbs are most commonly broken down to make ATP.
  • Breakdown of glucose yields ____ ATP.
  • ATP = Energy currency of the cell.
  • Cells use ATP for functions such as building molecules & moving materials by ______________.
  • ATP releases energy when phosphate group released.
  • Becomes Adenosine DiPhosphate(_____).
    • Can be converted back to ATP by adding phosphate.
slide16

Essential Questions

  • What are the two laws of thermodynamics?
  • What is the difference between an anabolic pathway and a catabolic pathway?
  • How does ATP work in a cell?

How Organisms Obtain Energy

section 2

Section 2

Photosynthesis

section 2 photosynthesis
Section 2: Photosynthesis

Light energy is trapped and converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis.

slide19

Overview of Photosynthesis

  • Most autotrophs make organic compounds using __________________.
  • Photosynthesis is the process of converting ________energy into chemical energy.

Photosynthesis

slide22

Overview of Photosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis occurs in ______phases.
  • In the _____________ phase, light energy is converted into chemical energy.
  • In the ______________ phase, chemical energy used to synthesize glucose.

Photosynthesis

slide23

Phase One: Light Reactions

  • The absorption of ____________is the first step in photosynthesis.
  • Once light energy is captured, it can be stored as _______or NAPDH.

Photosynthesis

slide24

Phase One: Light Reactions

Chloroplasts

  • Are organelles that capture light energy
  • Contain two main compartments:
    • ________________: flattened saclike membranes
      • Stacks of thylakoids are called grana.
    • The fluid filled space outside the grana called the __________________

Photosynthesis

slide26

Phase One: Light Reactions

Pigments

  • Light-absorbing colored molecules called ________are found in the thylakoid membranes.
  • Different pigments absorb specific wavelengths of light.
    • Most common pigment in plants is _________________.
    • Plants also have accessory pigments.

Photosynthesis

slide27

Phase One: Light Reactions

Electron transport

  • The thylakoid membrane has a large surface area, providing space for a large number of electron transporting molecules and two types of protein complexes called _____________________.
  • Photosystems house the light-capturing pigments.

Photosynthesis

slide28

Phase One: Light Reactions

Electron transport

  • Light energy excites electrons in _______________________.
  • This light energy causes a water molecule to split – releasing an electron into the electron transport system, a hydrogen ion (H+ or proton) into the thylakoid space, and oxygen as a waste product.

Photosynthesis

slide29

Phase One: Light Reactions

Electron transport

  • The activated electrons move from photosystem II to an acceptor molecule in the __________________membrane.
  • The electron acceptor molecule transfers the electrons along a series of electron carriers to photosystem I.

Photosynthesis

slide30

Phase One: Light Reactions

Electron transport

  • In the presence of light, photosystem I transfers the electrons to a protein.
  • The protein transfers the electrons to the carrier molecule _________forming the energy storage molecule NADPH.

Photosynthesis

slide31

Phase One: Light Reactions

Electron transport

  • ATP is produced in conjunction with the electron transport system through chemiosmosis
  • ATP is produced through the flow of electrons _____a concentration gradient
  • The breakdown of water provides the necessary protons for _____synthesis

Photosynthesis

slide32

Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle (light independent reactions)

  • In the second phase of photosynthesis, called the ___________, energy is stored in organic molecules such as ____________.

Photosynthesis

slide33

Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle

  • The first step of the Calvin cycle is called ____________ fixation.
  • CO2 molecules combine with 5-carbon molecules to form 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA)

Photosynthesis

slide34

Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle

  • In the second step, chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH is transferred to the 3-PGA to form glyceraldehyde 3-phospate (_________).

Photosynthesis

slide35

Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle

  • In the third step, some G3P molecules leave the cycle to be used for the production of _________________and other organic compounds.

Photosynthesis

slide36

Phase Two: The Calvin Cycle

  • In the fourth and final step, an enzyme called ______converts the remaining G3P molecules into 5-carbon molecules called ________1,5-bisphospates (RuBP).
  • These molecules combine with new CO2 and continue the cycle.

Photosynthesis

2 main steps of ps summary
2 Main steps of PS - Summary
  • Light reactions—occurs only in the presence of ___________
    • Occurs in the grana (thylakoids) of the chloroplasts
    • Also known as Photolysisbecause light is used to __________ _________ molecules into hydrogen and oxygen
2 main steps of ps summary1
2 Main steps of PS - Summary

2. Dark Reactions—can occur in light ____ darkness. Follows light reactions

  • Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts
  • Also known as Carbon fixationbecause CO2 will get “fixed up” with the hydrogens and energy from the light reaction
light reactions
Light Reactions

Take place within the membrane of the thylakoid.

  • Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight.
    • Water is __________ _________
    • Oxygen is ______________
  • Oxygen leaves the plant and goes into the air
the dark reactions
The Dark Reactions

Occur in stroma of chloroplasts.

  • _________ is added to a cycle of reactions to build larger molecules
  • A molecule of simple sugar is formed
    • _____________
slide43

Alternative Pathways

C4 plants

  • The C4 pathway allows plants to maintain photosynthesis while reducing _________ loss.
  • Significant structural modification in the arrangement of cells within the leaves – separate CO2 uptake from location of Calvin cycle

Photosynthesis

slide44

Alternative Pathways

CAM plants

  • Crassulacean acid metabolism (________) is found in desert plants.
  • Collect CO2 at night and store it in organic compounds
  • During the day, release CO2 from organic compounds for the light-dependent cycle of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

slide45

Essential Questions

  • What are the two phases of photosynthesis?
  • What is the function of a chloroplast during the light reactions?
  • How can electron transport be described and diagramed?

Photosynthesis

section 3

Section 3

Cellular Respiration

section 3 cellular respiration
Section 3: Cellular Respiration

Living organisms obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules during cellular respiration.

slide48

Overview of Cellular Respiration

  • Organisms obtain energy in a process called _________________.
  • Respiration harvests electrons from organic molecules and uses the energy to make _____________.
  • The equation for cellular respiration is the opposite of the equation for ___________________:

Cellular Respiration

slide49

Overview of Cellular Respiration

  • Cellular respiration occurs in two main parts: glycolysis and aerobic respiration.
    • Glycolysis is an ________ process, meaning it does not require ______.
    • Aerobic respiration involves the ______cycle and electron transport.
    • Aerobic processes require oxygen.

Cellular Respiration

slide50

Glycolysis

  • Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm through the process of _______________.
  • ____molecules of ATP and ____ molecules of NADH are formed for each molecule of glucose that is broken down.

Cellular Respiration

slide51

Krebs Cycle

  • Glycolysis has a net result of _____ATP and ______pyruvate.
  • Most of the energy from the glucose is still contained in the pyruvate.
  • In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrial matrix, where it is converted into carbon dioxide.
  • The series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide is the ______________, also know as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

Cellular Respiration

slide52

Krebs Cycle

Steps of the Krebs cycle

  • Prior to the Krebs cycle, pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A (CoA) to form ___________.
  • Acetyl CoA moves into the mitochondrial matrix.
  • Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon compound to form citric acid.

Cellular Respiration

slide53

Krebs Cycle

Steps of the Krebs cycle

  • ______acid is broken down releasing two molecules of carbon dioxide and generating one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH2.
  • Finally, acetyl CoA and citric acid are generated and the cycle continues.

Cellular Respiration

steps of kreb s
Steps of Kreb’s
  • Pyruvate broken down
  • Coenzyme A
  • Citric acid formed
  • Citric acid broken down
  • 5-carbon molecule broken down
  • 4-carbon molecule rearranged

Up to 38 ATP molecules are made from the breakdown of 1 glucose molecule.

slide56

Electron Transport

  • In aerobic respiration, electron transport is the final step in the breakdown of ____________.
  • NADH and FADH2 from the Krebs cycle are used to convert _____to _____.
  • Electron transport and chemiosmosis in aerobic respiration are similar to the processes of photosynthesis.

Cellular Respiration

slide57

Electron Transport

Prokaryotic cellular respiration

  • Some prokaryotes undergo ___________respiration.
  • They do not have mitochondria, so they use the ________membrane as the location of electron transport.

Cellular Respiration

steps of etc summary
Steps of ETC - Summary
  • Electrons removed – High energy electrons from NADH & FADH2.
  • Hydrogen ions transported – High energy electrons travel through the proteins in the ETC.
  • ATP Produced – ATP synthase adds phosphate groups to ADP to make ATP. For each pair of electrons that passes through the ETC, 3 ATPs are made.
  • Water formed – Oxygen enters cellular respiration process & picks up electrons & hydrogen ions to form water.
slide59

Anaerobic Respiration

  • When oxygen is unavailable, cells cannot follow glycolysis with the aerobic respiration (Krebs cycle and electron transport).
  • The anaerobic process that follows glycolysis is anaerobic respiration, or ________________________.
  • Fermentation occurs in the __________of the cell, and produces NAD+ and ATP.

Cellular Respiration

fermentation
Fermentation
  • Two types
    • _______________ fermentation
    • __________ ________ fermentation
slide61

Anaerobic Respiration

Lactic acid fermentation

  • Enzymes convert the pyruvate made during glycolysis into _______acid.
  • Skeletal muscles produce lactic acid when the body cannot supply enough oxygen, such as during periods of strenuous exercise.

Cellular Respiration

slide62

Anaerobic Respiration

Alcohol fermentation

  • Occurs in _________and some bacteria
  • Converts pyruvate into ethyl ________and carbon dioxide

Cellular Respiration

slide65

Essential Questions

  • What are the stages of cellular respiration?
  • What is the role of electron carriers in each stage of cellular respiration?
  • What are the similarities between alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation?

Cellular Respiration