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Chapter 5 Sec 1. India. Land. India and several other countries (Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives) make up the South Asian Subcontinent. A subcontinent- is a large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it.

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  • India and several other countries (Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives) make up the South Asian Subcontinent.
  • A subcontinent- is a large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it.

India is bordered in the North by two mountain ranges. The Karakoram range and the Himalayas.

  • The Himalayas are the largest mountain in the world with an average peak height of 5 miles tall.
  • There are also mountain in the southern part of India.

Most of India is warm or hot all year long because the Himalayas keep cold northern air from reaching the country.

  • Monsoons- or seasonal winds that blow steadily from the same direction for months, also influence the climate.
  • May through October the monsoons bring rains from the Indian Ocean.
green revolution
Green Revolution
  • India raises most of the foods it needs today.
  • During the Bengal Famine, in 1943, 4 million people died of starvation.
  • When India won its independence from Great Britain in 1947, Indian officials improved India’s farm land.
  • The Green Revolution- was an effort to use modern techniques and science to increase production of food.
green revolution cont
Green Revolution Cont.
  • The government built dams to collect water and spread this water to the farms through irrigation.
  • This allowed the farmers to plant more than once a year and they could plant multiple crops.
  • Today’s India grows rice, wheat, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and jute- a plant fiber used to make rope, burlap bags and carpet backing.

Huge factories in India’s cities turn out cotton textiles and produce iron and steel.

  • They also have oil and sugar refineries.
  • Recently American computer companies have opened offices in India to make software.
  • India also has cottage industry- or a home or village-based industry in which family members, including children, supply their own equipment to make goods.
  • Like the U.S., India is a democracy.
  • It has two houses of parliament or congress.
  • The Council of States, like our senate, and the House of the People which is like our house of representatives.
  • The prime minister- an official who heads the government in a parliamentary democracy, is elected by the party with the most votes and does the job of a president.
  • India’s economic growth has brought challenges of pollution.
  • Some of the problems are Deforestation.
  • The pollution of water and land from burning coal, industrial waste, and pesticides- or chemicals used to kill insects that destroy crops.
  • The main river the Ganges is considered one of the most polluted in the world.
india s history
India’s History
  • About 4,000 years ago the 1st Indian civilization was along the Indus River Valley in present day Pakistan.
  • Later Aryans came and blended their beliefs into the local customs and the religion eventually became Hinduism.
  • Under Hinduism the people created castes. A caste- was a social class based on a persons ancestry.

You were not allowed to do anything out of your caste.

  • Islam influenced India through the Mogul Empire. They ruled India for 200 years in the 1500s.
  • The British were the last of India’s conquerors, they ruled from 1700s-1900s.

Mohandas Gandhi led a non violent resistance in the mid 1900s. Eventually India gained its freedom in 1947.

  • East and West Pakistan, one on each side of India, were created as Muslim homelands. East Pakistan became Bangladesh in 1971.
  • About 80% of India follow Hinduism.
  • They believe in Reincarnation- this is the belief that after the body dies the soul is reborn, often in human or animal form, until they reach perfection.
  • Many Hindu's believe it is wrong to kill any living creature for this reason.
  • Cows are believed to be sacred and are allowed to roam freely.
religion cont
Religion cont.
  • Diwali is a major holiday in India. It is the festival of lights and celebrates the coming of winter and the victory of good over evil.
  • Sikhs is a religion that believes in one god like Christians but shares Hindu beliefs too. They want to create their own state apart from India.
daily life
Daily Life
  • There are around 1.2 billion people in India today.
  • There are 18 official languages
  • Hindi is the most common but English is used in business and government.
  • About 70% of the population live in a rural environment.