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PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS

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PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS

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  1. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS

  2. PEOPLE “Everyone has a photographic memory, it’s just that some people don’t have film.”

  3. PREGNANCY • DYSTOCIA: Difficult birth or the inability to expel the fetus through the birth canal without assistance • Causes: • Abnormal fetal position or size • Uterine inertia • Narrowed birth canal • Diagnosis: • Digital palpation of vagina • Radiographs • ultrasound

  4. PREGNANCY: DYSTOCIA • TREATMENT: • Manual manipulation: a fetus lodged in the vaginal canal can be manually dislodged. • For uterine inertia: oxytocin injections result in contraction of the uterine muscles; also, calcium preparations can be given • C-section

  5. PREGNANCY: INAPPROPRIATE MATERNAL BEHAVIOR • DAM SHOULD: • Allow nursing • Grooming • Stimulate CV,RS function • Stimulates elimination and removal of waste material • retrieving • Protecting • DAM SHOULD NOT: • Attack, kill, or cannibalize her young • Be overly protective, restless, or aggressive

  6. PREGNANCY: LACTATION DISORDERS • Agalactia: lack of milk production • Causes include; • Stress, malnutrition, premature partuition, or infection • Galactostasis: milk stasis, which can result in mastitis • Mastitis: a septic inflammation of the mammary gland • Clinical signs: • Pain, discolored milk, fever, reluctance to allow nursing, abscessed glands

  7. PREGNANCY: LACTATION DISORDERS • Treatment for mastitis: • Antibiotics • Warm compresses • Do not allow nursing from affected glands

  8. OTHER REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS: • PYOMETRA: Literally “pus in the uterus” • High levels of progesterone cause several changes in the uterus: • hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the endometrial glands of the uterus • Decreased myometrial contractions • Predisoposes the uterus to bacterial infection • Most common bacteria isolated is E.coli

  9. PYOMETRA • CLINICAL SIGNS: • Vulvar discharge • Vomiting • Dehydration • PU/PD • Azotemia • DIAGNOSIS: • Radiology • Ultrasound • Bloodwork • Ieukocytosis, neutrophilia with a left shift (closed pyometra)

  10. PYOMETRA This is a potentially life-threatening condition

  11. PYOMETRA An open pyometra is when the Cervix is open and allows drainage Of the pus Preferred treatment is ovariohysterectomy As well as antibiotics and fluid therapy

  12. PYOMETRA IN A RAT ..\P10021A.jpg C:\Users\BUNNY\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Low\Content.IE5\C9I4F8D5\P10021B[1].jpg

  13. VAGINITIS • Definition: an inflammatory process, not necessarily infectious. Prepuberal bitch (aka puppy vaginitis) VS. Adult vaginitis

  14. VAGINITIS • PUPPY VAGINITIS • Causes: • Inverted vulva • Hormonal fluctuations • Clinical signs: • Purulent vulvar discharge • +/- licking the vulva • Treatments: • systemic antibiotics • topical douching • Signs will return when treatment is discontinued • Condition resolves naturally after the first heat cycle

  15. VAGINITIS Inverted vulva

  16. VAGINITIS • ADULT VAGINITIS • Causes: • Anatomical abnormalities • Canine herpesvirus • Clinical signs: • purulent vulvar discharge • +/- licking the vulva • peri-vulvar skin irritation or infection • Perceived urinary incontinence

  17. VAGINAL HYPERPLASIA/PROLAPSE • Hyperplasia/prolapse • Occurs under the influence of estrogen • Results in edematous vaginal tissue that protrudes from the vulva • Treatment: • Ovariohysterectomy resolves the condition permanently and is the tx of choice • Will usually resolve spontaneously but will recur with subsequent estrous cycles

  18. VAGINAL HYPERPLASIA/PROLAPSE

  19. MAMMARY TUMORS • Usually tumors of older intact females • ~50% of all tumors in female dogs • 3rd most common tumor in cats • Risk dramatically reduces with ovariohysterectomy (<1% if spayed before 1st heat) • 50% of canine tumors are benign • Only 10-20% of feline tumors are benign

  20. MAMMARY TUMORS Malignant tumors are usually fast growing, Invasive and ulcerated. Benign tumors are Often small and feel like a pea. Surgical removal is advised for all Mammary tumors. Biopsy is required To differentiate benign from malignant tumors

  21. OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY • Surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus http://www.lbah.com/canine/spay.html

  22. PEOPLE “I love long walks, especially when they’re taken by someone who annoys me.”

  23. PROSTATIC DISEASES • PROSTATE: Sex gland in the dog and cat • Located just caudal to the bladder, encircling the proximal urethra at the neck of the bladder • Purpose is to produce a fluid as transport and support medium for sperm during ejaculation

  24. PROSTATIC DISEASE

  25. BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA • Caused by altered androgen/estrogen ratio • Mild or no clinical signs • Tenesmus • Enlarged prostate but not painful • TX: • Castration results in a 70% decrease in size within 14 days

  26. BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA

  27. PROSTATITIS • Bacterial prostatitis may be acute or chronic and it affects sexually mature dogs • Clinical signs: • Lethargy • Anorexia • Diagnosis: • Urinalysis: hematuria, increased white blood cells, presence of bacteria • Treatment: • Antibiotics • Castration • Prostatitis can lead to abscessation

  28. NEOPLASIA of the male genital tract • Prostatic neoplasia is uncommon, but all prostatic neoplasms are malignant • Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) • Occurs only in the canine • Spreads during sexual contact • Tumors found on the penis, prepuce, and scrotum • Cauliflower-like • Treatment: • Chemotherapy • Surgical removal of small localized masses

  29. TVT These tumors are friable and bleed easily

  30. CRYPTORCHIDISM • One or both testicles have been retained in the abdomen or inguinal canal • Often the retained testicle is still functional • Dog can still produce testoterone, show sexual desire and breed • A testicular tumor known as sertoli cell tumor is more common in retained testicles • These animal should not be bred

  31. CRYPTORCHIDISM Two normal testicles Unilateral cryptorchid Treatment is castration – testicle Should be removed from the Abdomen or pushed down from The inguinal canal

  32. CASTRATION http://www.lbah.com/canine/dog_neuter.html

  33. References • Alleice Summers, Common Diseases of Companion Animals • http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/Beimborn/index.php • http://veterinarycalendar.dvm360.com/avhc/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=727396&pageID=1&sk=&date= • http://www.vetmed.lsu.edu/eiltslotus/Theriogenology-5361/the_normal_canine.htm

  34. References • http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9923