CULTURE. Presented by Dr. Kazi Shahdat Kabir Associate Professor & Head , CGED Northern University Bangladesh E-mail: [email protected] DEFINITION OF CULTURE. Defining Culture
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Culture generally refers to patterns of human activity or behavior and the symbolic structures or to show creativity .Culture is learned processe. Only human beings have cultural learning , which depends on symbols.
Symbols have a particular meaning and value for people who share the same culture.
Culture can be defined as all the behaviors, ways of life, arts, beliefs and institutions of a population that are passed down from generation to generation.
Culture has been called "the way of life for an
entire society." such as-codes of mannerism, dress pattern, language, religion, rituals, norms of behavior, law and morality, and systems ofbelief as well as the arts and gastronomy (the art and practice of cooking and eating good food) . In broadly , we can say that culture is what we are.
Edward Burnett Tylor(1871)described culture in the
"Culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."
United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO- 2002) described
culture as follows:
".. culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group and that it encompasses, in addition to , art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs".
f) Culture links closely with social cultivation, the progressive refinement of human behavior,
g) Culture acts as a stabilizing mechanism; culture itself is a product of stabilization tendencies inherent in evolutionary processes.
h) Culture is a relative things.
►Language is a set of symbols used to assign and communicate meaning. It enables us to name or label the things in our world, so we can think and communicate about others .
►Language as a social product.
►Language as a way of communication and interaction.
►Language as the process of cognition and realization.
I) Norms is , as humanly ,created the rules for
a) The creation or production of norms.
b) The need for orderly, stable, predictable interactions with human beings.
c) The role of social power in the production of norms.
d) The reflecting of norms and renegotiating and changing norms.
II) Norms as a Social Control.
►Internal social control.
a) Socialization and the internalization of norms.
b) Ideologies, beliefs and values.
►External social control.
a) Informal sanctions:
♦ Physical and verbal reactions.
♦ Embarrassment and stigma.
♦ Avoidance and disorganization.
The importance of informal sanctions in small groups and organizations.
b) Formal sanctions.
♦ Formal sanctions in large organizations.
♦ Governments, laws and police.
♦ Courts, hearings, trials and punishments .
I) Values are anything members of a culture aspire (strong desire to achieve something) to or hold in high esteem (great respect and admiration).
II) Values are things to be achieved, things considered of great worth or value.
3) Values tend to compliment and support to one another .
4. Beliefs and ideologies:
I) Beliefs are the things, that members of a society hold to be true. They are the "facts" accepted by all or most of the members of a society. (not limited to religious statements).
II) Ideologies are integrated and connected systems of beliefs. Sets of beliefs and assumptions connected by a common theme or focus. They are often associated with specific social institutions or systems and serve to legitimize those systems.
5. Social Collectives:
I) Social collectives such as groups, organizations, communities, institutions, classes and even any small societies are also collectively produced symbolic social constructions.
II) Social collectives have a real impact on our lives. Such as contexts for interaction, local cultures, status, roles, identity, and the self.
6. Status and Roles-
I) Status, although related, is not a measure of a person’s wealth, power, and prestige.
II) The term role is often used to mean both a position in society and role expectations associated with it (specifying the rights and responsibilities).
7. Cultural Integration-
I) Cultural integration refers to how
interconnected, complimentary, and mutually
supportive the various elements of culture are.
II) Diversity, complexity, and integration,
III) Variation within modern mass cultures,
IV) The mass media and cultural integration.
Defining Cultural lag
The term cultural lag refers to the notion that society is unable to keep up with the rapid pace of technological change and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag.
Ogburn’s definition of cultural lag is“A cultural lag occurs when one of two parts of culture, which are correlated , changes before or in greater degree than the other part does; thereby causing less adjustment between the two parts that existed previously.”
According to William Fielding Ogburn, four critical
factorsdrive cultural change.
These four factors are-
►Invention: Ogburn believed that as new inventions were introduced into existing society, maladjustment would occur and a period of adjustment would be required. Inventions can be formed in a society from within the society by awareness of new possibilities.
►Accumulation: The accumulation of inventions over time also results in new inventions as two or more ideas are combined.
►Diffusion: Alternatively, inventions can result from the diffusion of new ideas from other geographical areas, and Adjustment
Marxism refers to cultural lag as the time after the proletariat(labours revolt against the bourgeois class) revolution in which capitalist economic principles are still vaguely(slightly) followed to foster(to encourage something to develop) the new society of communism.
Of course, in order to complete the transition from capitalism to communism, even this socialist state would dissolve.