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Bacterial Classification. Taxonomy and Characteristics. Prokaryotes. Domain Archaea [ancient bacteria] Domain Eubacteria [true bacteria] make up the old Kingdom Monera Prokaryotes Most abundant group Widely distributed Oldest organisms. Domain Eukarya. Organelles Plasma membrane

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Bacterial Classification


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Bacterial Classification Taxonomy and Characteristics

    2. Prokaryotes • Domain Archaea [ancient bacteria] • Domain Eubacteria [true bacteria] make up the old Kingdom Monera Prokaryotes • Most abundant group • Widely distributed • Oldest organisms

    3. Domain Eukarya • Organelles • Plasma membrane • Cell wall, if present, made up of polysaccharides • Fungi : chitin • Plants/Algae: cellulose or pectins • Vertebrates: no cell wall

    4. Eukaryotes DNA Membrane, nucleus Multiple chromosomes Associated with histones Organelles Cell Walls Division Sexual: Meiosis Asexual: Mitosis Motility: Flagella whips Prokaryotes DNA Nonmembrane, nucleiod One circular chromosome No histones Organelles Cell Walls: peptidoglycan Division Asexual Binary Fission Snapping Budding Motility: Flagella spins Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes

    5. Domain Archaea • Evolved from earliest cells • Methanogens • Largest group • Use CO2 • Extreme environment • Halophiles • Thermophiles • Psychrophiles • Acidophiles • Alkaliphiles

    6. Fungi Molds Yeasts Mushrooms Protista Slime Molds Unicellular Algae Protozoa Plantae Multicellular Algae Mosses Plants Animaliae Insects Worms Sponges Vertebrates Domain Eukarya

    7. Fungi • Eukaryotic • Unicellular = yeast • Multicellular = molds, mushrooms • Hyphae for nutrition from preformed matter • Chitin • Beneficial: decomposers • Pathogenic • Mycology

    8. Fungi: Mushrooms

    9. Fungi: Algae

    10. Fungi: Yeast

    11. Pathogenic Fungi

    12. Protista • Eukaryotic • Unicellular • Lack cell wall • Classified based on movements • Ciliates • Flagellates • Pseudopods • Beneficial: decomposers • Pathogenic

    13. Parasitic Protozoa

    14. Plantae

    15. Animalia

    16. Eubacteria • Prokaryotic • Unicellular • Shapes • Vary in size • Taxonomy: Bergey’s Manual • Low G+C Gram Positive • High G+C Gram Positive • Gram Negative Proteobacteria • Nonpathogenic: environmental contributions • Pathogenic

    17. Bacterial Shapes • Result of Asexual Reproduction • Binary Fission • Cross wall divides • Daughter cells +/- separate • Snapping Division • Inner cell wall divides • Daughter cells hinged • Budding • Outgrowth of original cell

    18. Budding

    19. Snapping Division

    20. Binary Fission

    21. Cocci Pairs Chains Tetrads Cubes Clusters Bacillus Separate Pairs Chains Binary Fission Results

    22. Bacterial Shapes

    23. Cocci: Pairs • Division in one plane • Diplococci • Neisseria

    24. Cocci: Chains • Division in 2 Planes • Streptococcus

    25. Cocci: Tetrads • Division in three planes • Micrococcus

    26. Cocci: 8-cell group • Divides in 3 planes • Sarcina

    27. Cocci: Clusters • Division in 3 planes • Staphylococcus

    28. Cocci Summary

    29. Rods: Straight E. coli

    30. Rods: Club-Shaped Corynebacterium

    31. Rods: Branching Actinomyces

    32. Rods: Comma form Vibrio

    33. Rods: Spore Formers

    34. Gram Negative Rod Summary

    35. Gram Positive Rod Summary

    36. Spiral Forms

    37. Pleomorphic

    38. Bacterial Shapes Review

    39. Motility

    40. Low G+C Gram Positive Organisms • Rods • Clostridia • Mycoplasmas • Bacillus • Listeria • Lactobacillus • Cocci • Streptococcus • Enterococcus • Staphylococcus

    41. High G+C Gram Positives • Rods • Corynebacterium • Mycobacterium • Actinomycetes • Actinomyces • Nocardia • Streptomyces Corynebacterium Nocardia M.tb

    42. Gram Negative Alpha Proteobacteria • Pathogenic • Rickettsia • Brucella • Ehrlichia Ehrlichia

    43. Gram Negative Beta Proteobacteria • Pathogenic • Neisseria • Bordetella • Spirillum • Burkholderia

    44. Gram Negative Gamma Proteobacteria • Pathogenic • Legionella • Coxiella • Pseudomonads • Enterobacteriaceae • E. coli • Salmonella • Shigella • Proteus • Yersinia • Enterobacter • Serratia Pseudomonas

    45. Gram Negative Epsilon Proteobacteria • Pathogenic • Campylobacter • Helicobacter Helicobacter Campylobacter

    46. Other Bacteria Chlamydia • Pathogenic • Chlamydia • Spirochetes • Treponema [syphilis] • Borrelia [Lyme ds] Borrelia Treponema

    47. Virus • Acellular • Nucleic acid core • Protein coat • Envelope [+/-] • Modifications • Viroids: RNA virus • Virions : outside host • Prions: proteins

    48. Microbes and the Immune System