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The Basics of Marketing. Chapter 4 . What do you think is meant by the ad’s headline?. This is a photograph of Hong Kong. VISA is attempting to attract customers who do business globally. This says VISA is an accepted payment worldwide. . Marketing Has Changed.

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what do you think is meant by the ad s headline
What do you think is meant by the ad’s headline?
  • This is a photograph of Hong Kong.
  • VISA is attempting to attract customers who do business globally.
  • This says VISA is an accepted payment worldwide.
marketing has changed
Marketing Has Changed
  • Marketing has changed a great deal from the way it was used by businesses many years ago.
  • The earliest use of marketing was to move products from the producer to the consumer.
  • Marketing has become more effective because it is integrated into other business activities.
  • When marketing is integrated, it is considered an essential part of the business, and it is involved in all important business decisions.
  • Most marketing strategies today are developed as a result of business opportunities, not problems.
  • Market opportunities include new markets and ways to improve a company’s offerings in current markets.
  • In the past, many businesses reduced marketing efforts when faced with financial problems.
what does marketing mean to a business
What Does Marketing Mean to a Business?
  • The primary focus of the business should be on the customer’s needs and wants, this is called the marketing concept.
  • Businesses that have adopted the marketing concept use a totally new approach to thinking and planning – they study the market.
  • A business takes a big risk when it is unwilling to study the needs of its customers.
  • Today’s marketers are continuously looking for market opportunities.
  • Without the marketing concept, a business will develop a product or service and then decide how to market the product.
putting marketing up front
Putting Marketing Up Front
  • Strategy is planning that identifies how a company expects to achieve its goals.
  • It is important to remember that various groups of customers may have different needs.
  • Marketing and product planning should occur at the same time.
  • Most of today’s consumers are very well informed, they know what they want.
  • Businesses that are not prepared for competition have a difficult time staying in the market.
  • A business that believes in the marketing concept focuses its business planning on satisfying the needs and wants of customers.
how does the marketing concept affect planning
How Does the Marketing Concept Affect Planning?
  • Businesses need to place the correct emphasis, not necessarily the same amount, on each of the four marketing mix elements.
  • Producers and manufacturers do not sell directly to final consumers, but they must also understand and respond to consumer needs.
  • Producers and manufacturers need to be concerned about the needs of other businesses in the channel of distribution – all businesses that move products from producer to consumer.
  • Channel members are the businesses used to provide many marketing functions during the distribution process.
  • Examples of channel members include producers, retailers, and wholesalers. The retailer usually makes the final pricing decisions.
  • Customers will blame all channel members if a product does not meet their needs.
  • Most service businesses do not use a channel of distribution.
  • Distribution planning is important to service businesses because the service must be available where and when the customer wants it.
combining parts of the marketing mix
Combining Parts of the Marketing Mix
  • Product that offers choices
  • Distribution/Place that provides convenience
  • Price that gives value
  • Promotion that aids decision-making
  • Satisfied customers

Customers do not always want the lowest price. Many are looking for the best value!

consumer decision making
Consumer Decision Making
  • Consumers make decisions every day.
  • A decision is a choice among alternatives.
  • Customers are quite differentfrom one another and they select products and services to meet their unique needs.
  • A market segment is a group of similar consumers within a larger market.
  • A market opportunity analysis studies and prioritizes market segments to located the best potential market based on demand and competition.
consumer decision making stages
Consumer Decision-Making Stages

Consumers make a series of decisions when deciding on a purchase.

  • Recognize a need
  • Identify alternatives
  • Evaluate choices
  • Make a decision
  • Assess satisfaction
non business organizations
Non-Business Organizations
  • Primary focus is on something other than providing products and service for a profit.
  • Examples
    • Government agencies
    • Churches
    • Schools
    • Museums
    • Professional organizations
non business organizations1
Non-Business Organizations
  • Nonprofit organizations should also be concerned about marketing, it will help them better satisfy their target market.
  • A target market is a clearly defined segment of the market which a business or non-profit organization wants to appeal to.

Target marketing is focusing all marketing mix decisions on the specific group of people you want to reach.

professional golfing
Professional Golfing
  • Describe the target market for a professional golfing event.
professional rodeo
Professional Rodeo
  • Describe the target market for a professional rodeo event.
video nascar
  • Describe the target market for a NASCAR event.
why study consumer behavior
Why Study Consumer Behavior?
  • Marketing begins with customers.
  • To effectively implement the marketing concept, marketers must understand consumer behavior.
  • Understanding consumer behavior will help marketers make sure their products and services match customer needs.
understanding consumer behavior
Understanding Consumer Behavior
  • Consumer behavior is the study of consumers and how they make decisions.
  • Final consumers buy products or services for personal use. Sometimes called the final customer.
  • Business consumers buy goods and services to produce and market other goods and services or for resale.

Frameworks 5.2

consumers wants needs
Consumers’ Wants & Needs
  • A want is an unfulfilled desire.
    • Products purchased to satisfy a want are not essential for living, but needed to maintain a certain lifestyle.
    • A non-economic want is a desire that cannot be satisfied with a purchase. An example of a non-economic want is friendship.
  • A need is anything you require to live. Food, clothing, shelter, and water are considered needs.

Frameworks 5.2.1

consumers wants needs1
Consumers’ Wants & Needs

Is the desire to have the newest cell phone a need or a want?

Four out of five teens (17 million) carry a wireless device. This is a 40% increase since 2004.

Frameworks 5.2

abraham maslow
Abraham Maslow

This American physiologist studied needs and determined that people satisfy their needs in a rank order (known as a hierarchy) with lower level needs being satisfied first.


Maslow said that people are on different levels of his hierarchy. Some people feel safety needs as more important to them, than social or esteem needs.

Maslow’s needs include: Physiological, Security, Social, Esteem, and Self-Actualization

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


(to realize your potential)


(respect and recognition)


(friends, love, belonging)


(physical safety and economic security)


(food, sleep, water, shelter, air)

physiological needs
Physiological Needs

food, sleep, water, shelter, air

Queen Bed Sets Starting at: $2,599.98

Sale Price: $2,399.98

security needs
Security Needs

physical safety and economic security

social needs
Social Needs

friends, love, belonging

“At the Arizona Country Club, members become friends for a lifetime and families share experiences that are cherished for generations. Our commitment to creating a lasting impression is the reason we have earned the distinction for being one of the friendliest country clubs in the Southwest.”

esteem needs
Esteem Needs

respect and recognition

self actualization needs
Self Actualization Needs

to realize your potential

what motivates buyers
What Motivates Buyers?
  • All of our actions are influenced by motivation.
  • Motivation is the set of positive or negative factors that direct individual behavior.

Frameworks 5.3.1

what motivates buyers1
What Motivates Buyers?
  • Buyingmotives are the reasons that you buy.
    • Emotional motives are reasons to purchase based on feelings, beliefs, or attitudes.
    • Rational motives are reasons to buy based on facts or logic.
    • Patronage motives are based on loyalty to a particular company or brand.

Frameworks 5.3.1

emotional motives
Emotional Motives

love, affection, guilt, status, fear

Frameworks 5.3.1

emotional motives1
Emotional Motives

love, affection, guilt, status, fear

emotional motives2
Emotional Motives

love, affection, guilt, status, fear

emotional motives3
Emotional Motives

love, affection, guilt, status, fear

Senior citizen above receives a flu shoot. Why?

Advertiser know that fear is a very strong motive.

rational motives
Rational Motives
  • Reasons for buying are based on logic or facts.
  • Includes factors such as saving money or obtaining the highest quality or greatest value.
  • Virtually all buyers have a combination of rational and emotional motive.

Frameworks 5.3.1

patronage motives
Patronage Motives
  • If you shop in the same store time after time, your motivation for choosing the business is a patronage motive – loyalty.
  • Business people are much less likely than final consumers to base purchases on patronage motives.
the consumer decision making process
The Consumer Decision-Making Process
  • Buying Behavior is the decision processes and actions of consumers as they buy services and products.
  • The Consumer Decision-Making Process is the process by which consumers collect and analyze information to make choices among alternatives.
the consumer decision making process1
The ConsumerDecision-Making Process

Postpurchase Evaluation


5 Steps

Alternative Evaluation

Information Search

Problem Recognition

the consumer decision making process2
The Consumer Decision-Making Process

The first step is problem recognition.

Problem Recognition

the consumer decision making process5
The ConsumerDecision-Making Process

Postpurchase Evaluation

Did the product you purchased fulfill your need.

A help line telephone number is often provided by companies to encourage satisfaction after the purchase.

Membership in an owner’s association may be provided.


influences on buying decisions
Influences on Buying Decisions
  • Personal identity is the characteristics and character that make a person unique. This includes personality, gender, ethnicity, and age.
  • Personality is an enduring pattern of emotions and behaviors that define an individual.
  • Attitude is a frame of mind developed from a person’s values, beliefs, and feelings.
influences on buying decisions1
Influences on Buying Decisions
  • Self-concept is an individual’s belief about his or her identity, image, and capabilities.
  • Lifestyle is the way a person lives as reflected by material goods, activities, and relationships.
  • Gender also influences many decisions and actions.
  • Ethnicity is a set of characteristics based on ancestry, country of origin, language, or traditions.
  • Age is also has a major influence on consumer behavior.
cultural and social environment
Cultural and Social Environment
  • Culture is the history, beliefs, customs, and traditions of a group.
  • A reference group is a group of people or an organization that an individual admires, identifies with, and wants to be part of.
cultural and social environment1
Cultural and Social Environment
  • Your reference group has an important influence on much of your behavior and image.
video too many men in china
Video: Too Many Men In China

What happens to the culture of a society when the government inadvertently causes an imbalance in the number of men to women?

No one knows … this situation has never happened before.

types of decision making
Types of Decision-Making
  • Routine decision making is used for purchases that are made frequently and do not require much thought.
  • Limited decision making takes more time and is associated with a more expensive product that is bought les frequently.
  • Extensive decision making is done for very expensive products and all 5 steps of the decision making process will be used.

Frameworks 8.6

types of decision making1
Types of Decision-Making
  • Routine decision making

Frameworks 8.6

types of decision making2
Types of Decision-Making
  • Limited decision making

Frameworks 8.6

types of decision making3
Types of Decision-Making
  • Extensive decision making

Frameworks 8.6

marketers response
Marketers’ Response
  • Marketers will have the greatest opportunity to explain the benefits of their products and services and how they can satisfy consumer needs when the customer uses extensive decision making.
  • The appropriate role of marketers in consumer decision making is to match their products and services to the needs and expectations of customers.