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January 11, 2007. Clean Air Panel. Recent Bond Measures Approved November, 2006. Proposition 1B $19.9 billion Transportation Bond

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recent bond measures approved november 2006
Recent Bond MeasuresApproved November, 2006
  • Proposition 1B
    • $19.9 billion Transportation Bond
      • Makes $1 billion available to CARB for emission reductions, not otherwise required by law or regulation, for activities related to the movement of freight along California’s trade corridors.
      • Makes $2 billion available for improvement of the movement of goods – through the ports, on the state highways and rail systems, and between California and Mexico.
      • Goods Movement Action Plan recommendation from BTH & CARB to CTC by December, 2006.
      • Final decision-making by CTC.
carb s emission reduction plan statewide
CARB’s Emission Reduction PlanStatewide


  • Plan seeks to apply the best available control technology to the entire truck fleet in private ownership, with a targeted program to modernize the subset of trucks serving ports
  • Plan targets an 88% reduction in diesel PM, and about a 60% reduction for NOx and ROG by 2020
carb s emission reduction plan statewide4
CARB’s Emission Reduction PlanStatewide
  • Locomotives:
    • Plan seeks upgrades for engines in switcher locomotives
    • Plan calls for retrofit diesel PM controls on existing engines
    • Plan recommends federal standards that would achieve 90% controlof diesel PM andNOx for new engines
clean air action plan pola polb
Clean Air Action PlanPOLA - POLB


  • CAAP calls for replacement or upgrade of all frequent and semi-frequent caller trucks, and all older (model year 1993 and older) trucks that call at both Ports by the end of 2011
  • Development of alternative fuel infrastructure to provide additional options for cleaner trucks
clean air action plan pola polb6
Clean Air Action PlanPOLA - POLB
  • Locomotives
    • CAAP seeks upgrades of all existing PHL switch engines to Tier II engine standards by end of 2007
    • Use of idle restrictions, Tier III equivalent locomotives, cleaner fuels, and retrofit controls on all Class I switcher, helper, and long haul locomotives operating on Port property
    • Stringent standards for new or modified railyards, implemented via the CEQA process, to ensure significant reductions fromlocomotives, CHE, and truck operations
    • Implementation via contract or memoranda of understanding
    • On-going legal and cost-effectiveness analyses prior to adoption of port-wide tariff’s or ordinances
adopted scaqmd nox inventories
AdoptedSCAQMD NOx Inventories

Tons NOx/Day

Data Sources: SCAQMD AQMPs & Other Materials












Adopted SCAQMD PM 2.5 Inventories

Tons PM2.5/Day

Data Sources: SCAQMD AQMPs & Other Materials

inherent efficiencies of rail
Inherent Efficiencies of Rail



1 double stack train equals up to 280 trucks

Trains are 2-4 times more fuel efficient

than trucks on a ton-mile basis

Fuel Efficiency

Trains are 2-3 times cleaner than trucks on a

ton-mile basis

NOx Emissions

freight railroads california environmental improvement program
Freight Railroads’ California Environmental Improvement Program
  • 1994 -- Supported the US EPA’s standards for new and re-manufactured locomotives
  • 1998 -- Developed enforceable MOU with ARB and US EPA to achieve accelerated reductions in Southern California
  • 2000 -- Created an end-user research & development program for new technologies
additional railroad emission reduction program components
Additional Railroad Emission Reduction Program Components
  • 2001 -- $5 million in funding by the railroads for particulate trap research at Southwest Research Institute
  • 2005 -- Concluded an MOU with the Air Resources Board to accelerate PM reductions in and around rail yards
  • Ongoing -- Funding & demonstrating new locomotive technologies:
    • Spark ignited LNG technologies
    • Idle reduction devices
    • New switch engines using truck engine technologies
    • Hybrid locomotives
south coast fleet average from 1998 mou
SouthCoast Fleet Average from 1998 MOU

Reductions from EPA Loco. Tiers 1 and 2 only … continental US

Reductions when Loco. Tier 0 added

to Tiers 1 and 2 … continental US

% Reduction in loco. NOx

67% NOx reduction from South Coast Fleet Average Program in Southern California!




Southern California commitment from the Railroads

how the arb described the 1998 mou
How the ARB Described the 1998 MOU

“ This compliance requirement would be met by the use of only the cleanest engines within the SCAB non-attainment area by an aggressive phase-in of these engines over five years. In essence, this fleet average requirement represents the most aggressive scrappage and replacement program of any transportation source in the SCAB (in effect, 100 percent scrappage/replacement with the latest, low-emitting locomotives over 5 years from 2005-2010). It would lead to an overall emission reduction of 67 percent by 2010.” [Emphasis Added]

The California State Implementation Plan for Ozone, Vol. II: The Air Resources Board's Mobile Source and Consumer Products Elements, Appendix B, at B-20 (Nov. 15, 1994).

2005 carb rail mou what it does
2005 CARB/Rail MOU – What It Does
  • Phase I: Brings about a 20% reduction in PM emissions from rail yards in California over the next three years
  • Phase II: Invites all local air districts and community groups to discuss longer-term locomotive emission control strategies
  • The reductions achieved by the MOU are larger and sooner than could have been required by any California regulatory or legislative body
  • The only way the State could get reductions from preempted sources was through a voluntary agreement
  • By using a cooperative approach, California has also avoided implementation delaysdue to disagreements over the State’s legal authority
2005 carb rail mou outcomes
2005 CARB/Rail MOU – Outcomes
  • ~425 locomotives will be equipped with automatic shutdown devices with 15 minute triggers
  • At least 80% of California fueling will be low-sulfur – six years earlier than required by federal regulation
  • At least 99% of all locomotives will comply with stringent smoke regulations– a much higher rate than any other mobile source
  • Health risk assessments will be carried out at the 16 major rail yards throughout California
reductions in rail yard diesel pm


EMISSIONS (tpy) & Reductions

2005 (Base)


% Reduction


Through Trains




‘98 MOU






‘98, ‘05 MOU, CARB Diesel

Loco Refueling




‘98, ‘05 MOU

Cargo Equipment




ARB Rule

Container Truck




Bond (or Moyer) Funding





Reductions in Rail Yard Diesel PM

Based on information the California Air Resources Board staff presented in 1/27/06 ARB Meeting

comparative markets locomotives trucks
Comparative Markets: Locomotives & Trucks
  • Diesel engine technology is driven by the US over-the-road truck market
    • 211 Class 8 trucks have been sold for every locomotive since 1972
  • Engine technologies “cascade down” through normal marketplace forces
    • Automotive Truck Locomotive, Stationary, and Marine
    • Example: Electronic Fuel Injection
      • Introduced into the auto market in early 1980’s
      • Entered truck market in late 1980’s
      • Entered locomotive market in 1994
    • Engine technologies cannot be quickly and simply “scaled up”

Liquefied Natural Gas Switcher Locomotive

1200 sustainable horsepower, spark ignited

new switch locomotive technology hybrids
New Switch Locomotive Technology: Hybrids

2000 peak horsepower from batteries

“Hybrid” light-medium duty switcher Batteries recharged by 290 HP EPA off-road Tier 2 diesel gen set Significantly exceeds EPA locomotive Tier 2 requirements

new switch locomotive technology gen set
New Switch Locomotive Technology: Gen Set

(2) 700 sustainable horsepower diesel gen sets

“Gen Set” heavy-duty switcher Powered by (2) EPA off-road Tier 3 diesel gen setsProjected to exceed EPA locomotive Tier 2 requirements

diesel particulate filter dpf r d
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) R&D
  • Two UP 1500 horsepower switchers will be equipped with DPF technology in 4Q ‘05
  • Units will be tested for maintainability, durability and performance in California
  • Railroads have been co-funding 5-year R&D project investigating performance, durability and applicability of DPF to older switching locomotives
  • R&D work being performed by Southwest Research Institute (“SwRI”) through Association of American Railroads
  • There is no technicalprecedent for this work
evaluate emissions reduction possibilities from a systems perspective
Evaluate Emissions Reduction Possibilities from a Systems Perspective
  • Must balance the needs of shippers, transporters, commuters, adjacent communities, regulators, and many other stakeholders
  • Altering one part of the system can cause disruption to the entire goods movement system (ships, rail, and truck operations)
    • International port calls, labor opportunities, freeway traffic patterns, and even commuter rail operations
  • Unintended economic and environmental consequences of various public policy choices must be squarely addressed
  • This issue needs a statewide focus and management team (per the Governor’s recommendation)
recent litigation
Recent Litigation
  • PMSA v. CARB
    • Complaint filed in December, 2006
  • PMSA Litigation Challenges
    • CARB Auxiliary Engine Rule
    • Multiple grounds for preemption
recent litigation31
Recent Litigation
    • Trial took place over three days, Nov. 28-30, in Federal District Court
    • Railroads challenged recently enacted SCAQMD rules regarding locomotives
    • Ruling expected at anytime
recent litigation32
Recent Litigation
  • RR Litigation Challenges SCAQMD Rules
    • Rule 3501 requires the Railroads to record and report data for locomotive idling events longer than 30 minutes
    • Rule 3502 imposes a penalty for certain locomotive idling events longer than 30 minutes
    • Retrofit with anti-idling technology
recent litigation33
Recent Litigation
  • RR Litigation Challenges SCAQMD Rules:
    • Rule 3503 requires the Railroads to gather information, develop an air emissions inventory, calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks posed by their operations at rail yards, and to annually notify the affected public if risks exceed the public notification levels.
recent litigation34
Recent Litigation
  • Causes of Action
    • Preemption under ICCTA
    • Preemption under Clean Air Act
    • Preemption under Boiler Act
    • Violation of Commerce Clause
    • Lack of authority under state law