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EPI 2670: Injury Epidemiology. Transportation Related Injuries. Thomas Songer, PhD University of Pittsburgh. Types of Transportation. Top Ten Public Health Achievement. History of Crashes. Fatality Rate per 100 Million Vehicle Miles. Studying the Epidemiology of Injuries from Crashes.

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Epi 2670 injury epidemiology l.jpg

EPI 2670: Injury Epidemiology

Transportation Related Injuries

Thomas Songer, PhD

University of Pittsburgh




History of crashes l.jpg
History of Crashes

Fatality Rate per 100 Million Vehicle Miles



The accident triumvirate l.jpg
The Accident Triumvirate

  • Environment

  • Vehicle

  • Driver


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The Crash Sequence

  • Pre-crash Period

  • Crash Period

  • Post-crash Period


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The Haddon Matrix

use for planning, resource allocation, strategy identification

Human

Vehicle

Environment

Pre-event

Event

Post-event



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Surveillance:

Systematic, regular ascertainment of incidence using methods distinguished by their practicality, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

Last, 1990


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Definition of Crashes

  • Police-reported crashes

  • Fatal crashes

  • Self-reported crashes

  • Insurance-reported crashes

  • Injury-producing crashes

  • Property-damage producing crashes



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FARS

Police Accident Reports

State vehicle registration files

State driver licensing files

State Highway Department data

Death certificates

Coroner/Medical examiner reports

Hospital medical records

Emergency medical service reports


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Fatality Analysis Reporting System 39,187 fatal motor vehicle crashes occurred in the United States in 2005, and 43,443 deaths occurred in these crashes.




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Fatal Accidents in Pennsylvania

Number % Speed % Alcohol Costs Related Related (millions)

1,562 16.1 32.9 $ 4,385

All figures are 1997

State of Pennsylvania Department of Transportation


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GESGeneral Estimates System


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USA Crash Rates By Severity

per 100 million VMT

Fatal

1.4

77

Injury

Property

Damage

156

6,279,000 total crashes

1999 FARS, GES



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Human

Age

Gender

Experience

Alcohol

Fatigue

Failure

Design

Speed

Vehicular

Road Cond.

Traffic

Weather

Environmental


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Driver Involvement Rates in Crashes by Gender and Crash Severity

per 100,000 licensed drivers

Males

Females

50

40

30

20

10

0

Fatal

1999 GES/FARS




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Percent of Drivers in Crashes with Alcohol Involvement by Age Group

Fatal

Injury

Age (in years)

1999 GES/FARS


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Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes by Previous Driving Record Age Group

Previous Crashes

14.8%

Previous Suspensions

12.4%

Previous DWI Convictions

3.4%

Previous Speeding Convictions

21.0%

Other Moving Violations

17.6%

No Previous Convictions

57.3%

1999 FARS



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Crash Rates by Type of Vehicle Age Group

per 100 million vehicle miles traveled

Fatal Crashes

1997 FARS


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Crash Rates by Type of Vehicle Age Group

per 100 million vehicle miles traveled

Injury Property Damage

1997 GES


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USA Crash Rates by Month Age Group

per 100 million vehicle miles traveled

1999 GES/FARS


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Crash Rates by Road Type, 1997, Pennsylvania Age Group(per 100 million VMT)

PennDOT


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Crashes by Hour of Day, PA Age Group

Number

1997 PennDOT


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Alcohol Involved Crashes by Time of Day Age Group

Number of Crashes

1999 GES,FARS

Morning

Evening


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Alcohol Related Crashes by Time of Day Age Group

1999 GES,FARS

Property Damage

Injury

Fatal Injury

Morning

Evening


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Crash Severity by Posted Speed Limit Age Group

Property Damage

Injury

Fatal Injury

%

1999 GES/FARS


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Research Issues Age Group


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No Standard Definition of Crashes Age Group

  • Police-reported crashes

    • under-reports non-fatal & less severe events

  • Self-reported crashes

    • drivers with impairments may under-report

  • Injury-producing crashes

    • does not include less severe events

  • Property-damage producing crashes

    • under-reporting to insurance companies


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General Underreporting of Accidents Age Group

Various sources suggest that about half the motor vehicle crashes in the country are not reported to the police, the majority of these unreported crashes involve only minor property damage and little personal injury.


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Death Rates per 10,000 Vehicles Registered by Country Age Group

Ethiopia

Bangladesh

Swaziland

Ecuador

Hong Kong


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MMUCC Age Group

Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria

Important Data Elements

  • Crash Date & Time

  • Place

  • Manner of Crash

  • Weather Conditions

  • Road Condition

  • Vehicle Make

  • VIN

  • Total Occupants

  • Seating Position

  • Injury Status

  • Seat Belt Use

  • Alcohol Involvement

  • Air bag Deployment


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CODES Age Group

To measure benefits in terms of reducing death, disability, and medical costs, NHTSA determined that statewide data were needed that included all persons involved in police-reported crashes --

those who were injured as well as those who were not injured.


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Prevention of Injuries from Motor Vehicle Accidents Age Group

  • Changes in Highway Design

  • Changes in Vehicle Design

  • Seat Belts

  • Air Bags

  • Speed Limits

  • Changes in Licensing


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Air Bags Work Age Group

(except for a few)

- Up through December 1999, air bags have

saved an estimated 4969 lives.

- In purely frontal crashes, air bags reduce

car driver deaths by 26-32 percent.

- Since 1990, 175 deaths have been caused

by airbags


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