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Attachment overheads. Class Notes. Attachment. Theories of John Bowlby Parent-child relationship What happens when children are raised in relative states of maternal separation? Films – institutionalized children staying in hospital wards. Three-phase separation behaviors resulted.

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Presentation Transcript
attachment
Attachment
  • Theories of John Bowlby
    • Parent-child relationship
    • What happens when children are raised in relative states of maternal separation?
    • Films – institutionalized children staying in hospital wards.
    • Three-phase separation behaviors resulted.
attachment1
Attachment
  • Issue: universality of stages.
  • Stages:
    • Stage one: Protest
    • Stage two: Despair
    • Stage three: Detachment
attachment2
Attachment
  • Bowlby felt that the mother-child bond was adaptive – important for survival.
  • Bowlby was very influenced by Karl Lorenz and his work on imprinting – innateness and adaptiveness of behaviors.
  • Bowlby felt that attachment was innate on the part of the infant and caregiver.
attachment3
Attachment
  • Certain behaviors connected with attachment.
  • Critical or sensitive period for the development of attachment.
  • Monotrophy – main attachment figure.
  • Model for future relationships.
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Attachment
  • Mary Ainsworth – conditions that activate children’s attachment systems.
  • Strange situation – baby in an unfamiliar room with a stranger.
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Attachment
  • Eight episodes measured four behaviors.
    • Willingness to explore
    • Separation anxiety
    • Stranger anxiety
    • Reunion Behavior
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Attachment

Definition of attachment – put slide up here.

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Attachment
  • Infant Characteristics that promote Attachment:
    • “kewpie doll” appearance
    • Rooting, sucking, grasping reflexes
    • Cooing, babbling
    • Smiling
    • Crying
    • Responsiveness to social overtures
attachment8
Attachment
  • Infant Characteristics that make attachment difficult
    • Physically unattractive (e.g.) premature
    • Reflexes weak
    • Irritable, few smiles
    • Little pleasant vocalization
    • Irritating shrill
    • Easily over stimulated, resists or ignores social overtures.
attachment9
Attachment
  • Caregiver characteristics that hinder attachment
    • Maternal depression
    • Abused mother
    • Mother does not want baby
    • Mother unable to take lead in establishing interactions
    • Mother insensitive to infant cues and may under or overstimulate child.
attachment10
Attachment
  • Several children in family
  • Poor marital relationship.
attachment11
Attachment
  • Schaffer and Emerson Stages in Social Attachment
    • Asocial stage – 0-6 weeks
    • Indiscriminate attachment stage – 6 wks to 6-7 months
    • Specific attachment stage – 7-9 months
    • Multiple attachment stage – shortly after stage 3
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Attachment
  • Theories of attachment:
    • Psychoanalytical Theory
    • Learning Theory
    • Ethological Theory
attachment13
Attachment
  • What does the research say about attachment?
attachment14
Attachment
  • Types of Attachment
    • Secure Attachment
    • Insecure Attachment (anxious / resistant)
    • Insecure Attachment (anxious / avoidant)
    • Insecure Attachment (disorganized / disoriented)
attachment15
Attachment
  • Ainsworth’s Caregiving Hypothesis
    • Quality of attachment dependent on attention, responsiveness, sensitivity.
    • Inconsistent caregiving leads to insecure attachment (anxious / resistant)
    • Impatient caregiving leads to anxious and avoidant attachment.
    • Abusive caregiving leads to disorganized / disoriented attachment.
attachment16
Attachment
  • Kagan’s Temperament Hypothesis
    • Quality of infant’s attachment dependent upon:
      • Easy temperment = secure attachment
      • Difficult temperment = insecure (anx/res)
      • Slow to warm up temperment = insecure (anx / avoidant)
      • Research evidence?
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Attachment
  • Symptoms of a reactive attachment disorder – see handout on the website.
  • What can we do to help?
    • Provide highly predictable environment.
    • Avoid intimacy too soon.
    • Holding therapy?
    • Failure to thrive cases.
    • Reparenting work.