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Attachment. What are emotional attachments Theories of attachment Behaviorist approach Dependency and drive reduction model Operant conditioning model Problems with the models Psychoanalytic approach Freud’s theory Erikson’s theory Cognitive-developmental approach Ethological approach

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attachment
Attachment
  • What are emotional attachments
  • Theories of attachment
    • Behaviorist approach
      • Dependency and drive reduction model
      • Operant conditioning model
      • Problems with the models
    • Psychoanalytic approach
      • Freud’s theory
      • Erikson’s theory
    • Cognitive-developmental approach
    • Ethological approach
      • Background of the theory
      • The developmental course of attachment
        • The “preattachment phase”
        • The “attachment in the making phase”
        • The phase of “clearcut attachment”
        • The formation of a reciprocal relationship
  • Measurement of attachment
    • The “strange situation”
    • Patterns of attachment
      • Secure
      • Insecure – avoidant
      • Insecure – resistant/ambivalent
      • Insecure - disorganized
  • Factors affecting attachment
    • Maternal deprivation and institutionalization
    • Quality of care-giving
    • Infant characteristics
behaviorist approach to attachment
Behaviorist Approach to Attachment
  • The importance of feeding and drive reduction
  • Elicits positive responses
  • Mothers provide infants with additional comforts, such as warmth, vocalizations
  • All occur in single setting
  • Mom becomes source of reinforcement
behaviorist approach to attachment4
Behaviorist Approach to Attachment
  • The importance of feeding and drive reduction
  • Elicits positive responses
  • Mothers provide infants with additional comforts, such as warmth, vocalizations
  • All occur in single setting
  • Mom becomes source of reinforcement
  • Operant Conditioning model
  • Infants look, smile, and seek proximity because mom reciprocates with smiles, hugs
  • The greater number of behaviors that get reinforced by particular person, the more one is attached to that person
psychoanalytic approach to attachment
Psychoanalytic Approach to Attachment
  • Freudian approach
  • Similar to drive reduction
  • Become attached to person who satisfies basic biological drives (typically Mom)
  • Relationship with Mom then prototype for romantic relationships throughout life
  • Erikson’s approach
  • 1st developmental stage: birth – 1 yr: Trust vs. mistrust
  • Children become attached to people who minister to needs
  • Importance of mother’s overall responsiveness
cognitive developmental approach to attachment
Cognitive-DevelopmentalApproach to Attachment
  • Little to say about which people to whom one becomes attached
  • Suggests that attachment depends, in part, on level of cognitive development
  • Must be able to discriminate familiar persons from strangers
  • Must recognize that familiar persons have permanence – object permanence abilities, as discussed earlier
  • Thus, timing of attachment related to timing of development of cognitive ability
ethological approach to attachment
Ethological Approach to Attachment
  • Central feature of theory
  • Babies born with in-born set of behaviors
  • Behaviors elicit parent care, thus increase change of survival
  • The developmental course of attachment
  • The preattachment phase
    • Behavior a matter of genetically determined reflexive responses with survival value
    • Promote physical contact
  • Attachment in the making
    • Orient and respond with preference towards mom
    • No specific attachment yet
  • The phase of clearcut attachment
    • Shows separation anxiety
    • Mom as a “safe haven”
  • Formation of a reciprocal relationship
    • Decrease in separation anxiety
patterns of attachment
Patterns of Attachment
  • Insecure – Avoidant
  • Little distress at separation
  • Avoids mother during reunion
  • About 20% of North-American infants
  • Securely Attached
  • Distressed during separation
  • Seeks out mother during reunion
  • About 65% of North-American infants
  • Insecure – Ambivalent/Resistance
  • Distressed throughout, and during separation
  • Reunion a mixture of relief and anger
  • About 10% of North-American infants
  • Insecure – Ambivalent/Resistance
  • Combination of avoidant and ambivalent/resistant
  • Confusion over whether to approach or avoid
  • During reunion may act dazed or freeze
  • About 5 - 10% of North-American infants