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Scientific Basis for NASA OBB Mission Planning. Societal Relevance. Science Questions. Observational Requirements. Observational Strategies. Satellite Missions. Emerging Scientific Questions for NASA OBB Program.

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slide1

Scientific Basis for NASA OBBMission Planning

Societal Relevance

Science Questions

Observational Requirements

Observational Strategies

Satellite Missions

slide2

Emerging Scientific Questions for NASA OBB Program

  • How are ocean ecosystems and the biodiversity they support influenced by climate or environmental variability and change, and how will these changes occur over time?
  • How do carbon and other elements transition between ocean pools and pass through the Earth System, and how do these biogeochemical fluxes impact the ocean and Earth’s climate over time?
  • How (and why) is the diversity and geographical distribution ofcoastal marine habitats changing, and what are theimplications for the well-being of human society?
  • How do hazardsand pollutants impact the hydrography and biology of the coastal zone? How do they affectus,and can wemitigatetheir effects?
slide3

Ecosystems & Diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Relevance:
    • Changes in ocean ecosystem structure, function & distribution on synoptic to climatic time scales
    • Impacts on higher trophic levels (e.g., fish, reptiles, birds, mammals)
  • Science:
    • Ocean biogeography
    • Quantify productivity &its transfer to higher trophic levels
    • Identifying plankton functional groups
  • Benefits to society:
    • Assessing ecosystem health, services
    • Understanding nutrient and carbon sinks/sources
    • Improving human welfare
slide4

Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Relevance:
    • Impacts and feedbacks of climate changes on biogeochemistry
    • Impacts of humans
  • Science:
    • Ocean carbon pools & fluxes
    • Primary producer biomass
    • Understanding climate controls and the role
    • of ocean biogeochemistry
  • Benefits to society:
    • Assessing/verifying ocean carbon credit trading, mitigation strategies
    • Helping manage climate and adapting to
    • change
slide5

Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Relevance:
    • Growing human population density and dependence on ocean resources
    • Changing coastal environments
  • Science:
    • Classification of regional marine habitats and coastal landscapes
    • Measuring impacts of land use
    • Understanding climate impacts & controls
    • Sustainable fisheries and coastal ecosystems
    • Assessing red tides and coral reef health
  • Benefits to society:
    • Basis for ecosystem-based management
    • Improving human health, recreation, and commerce
slide6

Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Relevance:
    • Significant risk to human life and property
    • Protection of natural environments
  • Science:
    • - Acute Hazards:
      • Tsunamis & hurricanes
      • Oil Spills
      • Harmful algal blooms
    • - Chronic Hazards:
      • Ocean warming and sea level rise
      • Ocean acidification
      • Eutrophication
  • Benefits to society:
      • Forecasting of hazards
      • Disaster preparedness/security
      • Mitigation tools
slide7

Ecosystems & Diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Observational requirements:
    • Accurately determine ecosystem biomass
      • Accurate detection of long-term changes
      • Atmospheric correction…
      • Calibration / validation…
      • Separate optically active components
      • CDOM from Chl…
      • Global coverage sampling all biomes
    • Assess biodiversity
      • Phytoplankton functional groups
      • Special phytoplankton species
      • Particle size spectrum
    • Measure ocean productivity
      • NPP rate determinations
      • Physiological status of phytoplankton community
      • Grazing & secondary production
    • Understand the oceanographic setting
      • MLD, incident and in situ light levels, SST, SSS, sea level, vector winds, …
slide8

Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Observational requirements:
    • Accurate assessment of ocean BGC constituents
      • Accurate detection of long-term changes
      • Atmospheric correction…
      • Calibration / validation...
      • Separate optically active components
      • CDOM from Chl…
      • Measure particle biomass
    • Assess ocean productivity & carbon fluxes
      • Net primary production
      • New & secondary production
      • Physiological status of phytoplankton community
    • Integrate with biogeochemical models
      • Air-sea CO2 fluxes
      • Carbon export by both sinking & physical pumps
      • Shelf carbon exchanges
slide9

Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Observational requirements:
    • Assess in-water constituents in coastal environments
      • Accurate detection of long-term changes
      • Atmospheric correction…
      • Calibration/sensor characterization...
      • Separate optically active components
      • CDOM from Chl…
      • Develop capabilities for all biomes – globally
    • High temporal resolution
      • Within a day revisit time – tidal phenomena
    • High spatial / spectral resolution
      • Use existing/upcoming technologies (LDCM, …)
      • New high resolution ocean color capability
      • 10 m – 100 km swath - 20 ocean color bands
    • Understand the coastal ocean setting
      • Land-ocean interactions – river outflows
      • Tidal & coastal fronts
    • Couple with in situ observations
      • Ocean observatories
      • Sub-orbital AUV vehicles
slide10

Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards

  • Observational requirements:
    • Respond to acute hazards
      • Instantaneous data dissemination
      • Rapid revisit cycle
      • All weather capabilities –> SAR/UAV’s
    • Assess chronic hazards
      • Accurately measure ecosystem parameters
      • Atmospheric correction…
      • Calibration/sensor characterization...
      • Separate optically active components
      • CDOM from Chl…
    • High temporal resolution
      • Rapid revisit cycle – follow events
      • Use temporary platforms (sub-orbital assets)
    • High spatial resolutions
      • Use existing/upcoming technologies (LDCM, …)
      • New high resolution ocean color capability
      • 10 m – 100 km swath
slide11

Science Requirements Lead to Observational Strategies

  • Global Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometer
  • Geostationary Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometer(s)
  • Multi-Spectral High Spatial Resolution Imager
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
  • Sub-orbital Survey and Events UAV Suite
  • Variable Fluorescence Lidar
  • Mixed Layer Depth and Illumination Sensor
  • Ocean Particle Profiler and Aerosol Column Distributions