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  1. Scientific Basis for NASA OBBMission Planning Societal Relevance Science Questions Observational Requirements Observational Strategies Satellite Missions

  2. Emerging Scientific Questions for NASA OBB Program • How are ocean ecosystems and the biodiversity they support influenced by climate or environmental variability and change, and how will these changes occur over time? • How do carbon and other elements transition between ocean pools and pass through the Earth System, and how do these biogeochemical fluxes impact the ocean and Earth’s climate over time? • How (and why) is the diversity and geographical distribution ofcoastal marine habitats changing, and what are theimplications for the well-being of human society? • How do hazardsand pollutants impact the hydrography and biology of the coastal zone? How do they affectus,and can wemitigatetheir effects?

  3. Ecosystems & Diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Relevance: • Changes in ocean ecosystem structure, function & distribution on synoptic to climatic time scales • Impacts on higher trophic levels (e.g., fish, reptiles, birds, mammals) • Science: • Ocean biogeography • Quantify productivity &its transfer to higher trophic levels • Identifying plankton functional groups • Benefits to society: • Assessing ecosystem health, services • Understanding nutrient and carbon sinks/sources • Improving human welfare

  4. Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Relevance: • Impacts and feedbacks of climate changes on biogeochemistry • Impacts of humans • Science: • Ocean carbon pools & fluxes • Primary producer biomass • Understanding climate controls and the role • of ocean biogeochemistry • Benefits to society: • Assessing/verifying ocean carbon credit trading, mitigation strategies • Helping manage climate and adapting to • change

  5. Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Relevance: • Growing human population density and dependence on ocean resources • Changing coastal environments • Science: • Classification of regional marine habitats and coastal landscapes • Measuring impacts of land use • Understanding climate impacts & controls • Sustainable fisheries and coastal ecosystems • Assessing red tides and coral reef health • Benefits to society: • Basis for ecosystem-based management • Improving human health, recreation, and commerce

  6. Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Relevance: • Significant risk to human life and property • Protection of natural environments • Science: • - Acute Hazards: • Tsunamis & hurricanes • Oil Spills • Harmful algal blooms • - Chronic Hazards: • Ocean warming and sea level rise • Ocean acidification • Eutrophication • Benefits to society: • Forecasting of hazards • Disaster preparedness/security • Mitigation tools

  7. Ecosystems & Diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Observational requirements: • Accurately determine ecosystem biomass • Accurate detection of long-term changes • Atmospheric correction… • Calibration / validation… • Separate optically active components • CDOM from Chl… • Global coverage sampling all biomes • Assess biodiversity • Phytoplankton functional groups • Special phytoplankton species • Particle size spectrum • Measure ocean productivity • NPP rate determinations • Physiological status of phytoplankton community • Grazing & secondary production • Understand the oceanographic setting • MLD, incident and in situ light levels, SST, SSS, sea level, vector winds, …

  8. Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Observational requirements: • Accurate assessment of ocean BGC constituents • Accurate detection of long-term changes • Atmospheric correction… • Calibration / validation... • Separate optically active components • CDOM from Chl… • Measure particle biomass • Assess ocean productivity & carbon fluxes • Net primary production • New & secondary production • Physiological status of phytoplankton community • Integrate with biogeochemical models • Air-sea CO2 fluxes • Carbon export by both sinking & physical pumps • Shelf carbon exchanges

  9. Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Observational requirements: • Assess in-water constituents in coastal environments • Accurate detection of long-term changes • Atmospheric correction… • Calibration/sensor characterization... • Separate optically active components • CDOM from Chl… • Develop capabilities for all biomes – globally • High temporal resolution • Within a day revisit time – tidal phenomena • High spatial / spectral resolution • Use existing/upcoming technologies (LDCM, …) • New high resolution ocean color capability • 10 m – 100 km swath - 20 ocean color bands • Understand the coastal ocean setting • Land-ocean interactions – river outflows • Tidal & coastal fronts • Couple with in situ observations • Ocean observatories • Sub-orbital AUV vehicles

  10. Ecosystems & diversity, Carbon & Biogeochemistry,Habitats & Hazards • Observational requirements: • Respond to acute hazards • Instantaneous data dissemination • Rapid revisit cycle • All weather capabilities –> SAR/UAV’s • Assess chronic hazards • Accurately measure ecosystem parameters • Atmospheric correction… • Calibration/sensor characterization... • Separate optically active components • CDOM from Chl… • High temporal resolution • Rapid revisit cycle – follow events • Use temporary platforms (sub-orbital assets) • High spatial resolutions • Use existing/upcoming technologies (LDCM, …) • New high resolution ocean color capability • 10 m – 100 km swath

  11. Science Requirements Lead to Observational Strategies • Global Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometer • Geostationary Hyperspectral Imaging Radiometer(s) • Multi-Spectral High Spatial Resolution Imager • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) • Sub-orbital Survey and Events UAV Suite • Variable Fluorescence Lidar • Mixed Layer Depth and Illumination Sensor • Ocean Particle Profiler and Aerosol Column Distributions