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“Learning and Development”. Jean Piaget http:// gsi.berkeley.edu / teachingguide / theories/ piaget.html Constructivism, assimilation and accommodation Stages of development: Sensori -motor > Pre-operational > Concrete operational > Formal operational Criticisms of Piaget’s theory

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learning and development

“Learning and Development”

Jean Piaget


Constructivism, assimilation and accommodation

Stages of development: Sensori-motor > Pre-operational > Concrete operational > Formal operational

Criticisms of Piaget’s theory

Importance of Piaget’s theory

learning and development2

“Learning and Development”

Lev Vygotsky


Social constructivism

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)


learning and development3

“Learning and Development”

Multiple intelligences









*Preferred learning styles, variety in materials presentation

multiple intelligences think love

Multiple intelligences (think > love)

Linguistic (words > reading, writing, telling stories)

Logical-Mathematical (reasoning > experimenting, questioning, calculating)

Spatial (images and pictures > visualizing, drawing, designing)

Body-Kinesthetic (somatic sensations> running, jumping, dancing)

Musical (rhythms and melodies > listening, singing, tapping feet and hands)

Interpersonal (social interaction > leading, organizing, relating)

Intrapersonal (deep inside ourselves > being quiet, dreaming, setting goals)

Natural (outdoors > surviving, building, playing)

multiple intelligences need

Multiple intelligences (need)

Linguistic (books, discussion, debates, lectures, worksheets, journals)

Logical-Mathematical (logic problems, puzzles and games, questioning)

Spatial (movies, art, illustrated books, graphic organizers, charts, diagrams)

Body-Kinesthetic (role play, drama, movement, sports, crafts)

Musical (songs, concerts, instruments, jazz chants, background music)

Interpersonal (friends, social gatherings, clubs, peer sharing and teaching)

Intrapersonal (time alone, self-paced projects, independent study)

Natural (field trips, time outdoors, activities with animals and plants)

child as a language learner

“Child as a Language Learner”

Developmentally appropriate instruction and practices

Emotional/social, cognitive and physical development

Student interests > Engaging and motivating lessons

Ways to learn about children’s development

Language acquisition vs. language learning

Comprehensible input (I+1)

Ways to make input comprehensible

teaching listening

“Teaching Listening”

Hearing and listening

Help children learn a language better

Indicators of and coping with hearing loss

Receptive vs. productive skills

Learning channels (auditory, tactile, visual, kinesthetic)

Listening and reading skills – similarities

Listening capacity

Pronunciation and phonological awareness

Total Physical Response (TPR)

learning channels

Learning Channels




Kinesthetic (*add this to the three mentioned in your “Teaching Listening” reading assignment)

activities learning channels

Activities: Learning Channels

Listen and do – TPR activities > Kinesthetic

Sentence Bingo > Auditory

IncyWincy Spider > Auditory, kinesthetic, visual

Draw me a story > Auditory, visual

Pied Piper > Auditory, visual

In town > Auditory, visual

Shapes galore > Tactile

The teacher is a cassette player > Auditory

Mime what happens > Kinesthetic

Visualization > Auditory

teaching speaking

“Teaching Speaking”

Children experiment and play with language > utterances to words

Innovations > own verses and versions of songs and finger plays

Myth > children develop language skills more readily than adults

Pronunciation > Troublesome sounds when 10-11 years old

MLU> number of morphemes found in a sample utterance

Children tend to overgeneralize grammar rules

Aims of programs should be in line with stages of development

ALM > drills with choral response + dialogues (language patterns)

Drills more interesting > personalize

teaching speaking11

“Teaching Speaking”

Choral response > students respond in unison

Dialogues provide learners with grammatically controlled scripts

Puppets make children feel comfortable, relaxed and amused

Fishbowl > Teacher models an activity with a volunteer or puppet

CLT > Connect classroom language learning to the outside world

Games > purposeful in the classroom and a big part of growing up

Tongue twisters are a fun way to teach pronunciation

Error correction > depends on fluency or accuracy work being done

Classroom control > well-planned lessons and visual clues