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West Nile Mitigation. 2013. Mosquito Trapping Program. 2013 Mosquito Trapping Data. City of Edmond Water Tower. 2013 Mosquito Trapping Data (cont.). Note: Increase in population occurred one (1) week after significant rainfall. Oklahoma City Hazard Mitigation Plan.

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West Nile Mitigation

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    1. West NileMitigation 2013

    2. Mosquito Trapping Program

    3. 2013 Mosquito Trapping Data City of Edmond Water Tower

    4. 2013 Mosquito Trapping Data (cont.) Note: Increase in population occurred one (1) week after significant rainfall.

    5. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan Chapter 19 – West Nile virus 19.1 Plan Update The HMC reviewed the plan and have determined that the West Nile virus (WNV) disease should be added and labeled as Chapter 19. 19.2 Hazard Profile WNV is a virus that is spread by mosquitoes and may cause illness in birds, animals, and humans. WNV was not known to be present in the United States until the summer of 1999. Source: www.ok.gov

    6. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) Before that, WNV was only found in Africa, western Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Currently, WNV activity has been seen in all of the lower 48 states. About 70% of the cases have been reported from eight states (Texas, Mississippi, Michigan, South Dakota, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Illinois, and California). WNV is primarily spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes pick up the virus when they feed on infected birds. The infected mosquitoes can then pass the virus to humans or animals. Rarely has WNV been spread through blood transfusions. WNV is not spread person to person through casual contact such as touching or kissing. Symptoms usually occur 2 to 14 days after a bite from an infected mosquito. Over 80% of people who are exposed to WNV never become sick. Of those that become sick, most persons will have a mild illness called “West Nile Fever” lasting two to ten days. Common symptoms of West Nile Fever include headache, fever, and tiredness. Some persons may also develop a rash. In some cases, WNV can cause severe neurologic disease such as meningitis (swollen membranes in brain and spinal cord), paralysis (loss of muscle function), or encephalitis (swelling and inflammation of the brain). Symptoms of West Nile meningitis or encephalitis may be intense headache, dizziness, stiff neck, severe weakness, muscle tremors, confusion, or seizures. There is currently no vaccine and no treatment for WNV. Severe cases are often hospitalized.

    7. 19.2.1 Historical Events and Costs From 2002 through 2011, 327 cases of human disease have been reported and 21 Oklahomans have died from this virus. From January 1 through December 13, 2012, 164 cases of WNV and 13 deaths due to WNV were reported. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.)

    8. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) Source: West Nile Virus Cases and Deaths by Year, 2002-2012 http://www.ok.gov/health/Disease,_Prevention,_Preparedness/Acute_Disease_Service/Disease_Information/Tickborne_and_Mosquitoborne_Diseases/West_Nile_Virus/

    9. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) 19.3 Risk Assessments Mosquitoes breed faster when temperatures are high. Therefore the risk of WNV is much greater during the summer months. Low temperatures and low humidity cause slow breeding and higher mortality rates. When the temperature drops, mosquitoes are less prone to bite because, in cooler weather, they switch from a blood diet to sugar from plants to provide energy for winter survival. Both dry and wet weather can benefit the infectious mosquito population. Dry spells can help lengthen the mosquito’s life cycle, allowing time for diseases to multiply in the infected body and move to the salivary glands. When it’s dry, mosquitoes retreat to cool, damp areas to wait for rain. that type of hibernation, any infection in their saliva

    10. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) becomes more powerful. After rain, puddles and standing water provide ideal locations for breeding more mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes lay their eggs one at a time or together in rafts of a hundred or more eggs on the surface in fresh or any stagnant water. While not all mosquitoes are infected with WNV it’s best to imagine that they are and take precautions to exercise mosquito safety. In evaluating vulnerability of the population in Oklahoma City, it was determined that risk/vulnerability includes the entire population of Oklahoma City since there is no way to determine the impact/magnitude of WNV and no way to predict where and when WNV will occur. The Oklahoma City-County Health Department (OCCHD) has experience in actual events (surveillance, testing, breeding site reduction, larval control, adult mosquito control, etc.) which will better prepare them for future WNV events.

    11. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) 19.4 Mitigation Strategies Unfortunately, there is no easy solution for managing mosquitoes. During WNV season OCCHD and the City of Oklahoma City, in collaboration with key partners will: • Conduct personal protection messaging that includes encouraging the use of insect repellant when playing or working outdoors. OCCHD currently has a “Mosquito Control/West Nile” page on their website www.occhd.org, which highlights how the public can reduce their risk of contracting WNV. The campaign, known as “Fight the Bite” uses the 4 D’s of mosquito safety: • DRAIN standing water on your property so mosquitoes won’t breed • Use insect repellent that contains DEET • Stay indoors at DUSK AND DAWN when mosquitoes are most prevalent • DRESSin long sleeves and pants and spray insect repellent on the clothes

    12. OCCHD also provide tips for breeding site reduction, larval control, and adult mosquito control. With links to a safety video, frequently asked question page, and various press releases and publications.   Apply larvicide to known mosquito breeding locations and in response to locations of sustained complaints of mosquito breeding. Through surveillance and testing, OCCHD and the City of Oklahoma City Storm Water Quality (SWQ) division, in collaboration with key partners will use mosquito larvicide to eliminate mosquito breeding sites. Larvicides are insecticides which are used to control immature mosquitoes before they have a chance to develop into biting adults. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) Source: www.occhd.org

    13. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) 3. Conduct mosquito habitat modification-removal and reduction-to known mosquito breeding locations and in response to locations of sustained complaints of mosquito breeding. Through surveillance and testing, OCCHD and the City of Oklahoma City SWQ, Streets, Traffic, and Drainage (STD), and Solid Waste Management (SWM) divisions, in collaboration with key partners will modify potential habitats in which mosquitoes can develop (uprooted trees that’s collecting seepage and rainwater, large areas of standing water, such as from swamps, sluggishly moving streams or ditches, etc.) This is thought to be the most effective way to reduce the number of mosquitoes around homes and neighborhoods. 19.5 Conclusion WNV poses a threat to all of Oklahoma City. Because of its unique nature, no single entity can prevent or mitigate the impact of WNV, but there are measures that can be taken to reduce the affects of WNV in Oklahoma City.

    14. Oklahoma CityHazard Mitigation Plan (cont.) During WNV season, the impact of human resources would suffer the most. Education and outreach programs with OCCHD will build community knowledge and allow for cohesive and individual preparedness activities. Application of larvicide and mosquito habitat modification from OCCHD and the City of Oklahoma City will reduce the number of mosquitoes in and around at risk communities. References “West Nile Virus Cases and Deaths by Year, West Nile Virus Fact Sheet, West Nile Virus Questions and Answers.” Oklahoma State Health Department Archive. Web. 13 March. 2013. <http://www.ok.gov/health/Disease,_Prevention,_Preparedness/Acute_Disease_Service/Disease_Information/Tickborne_and_Mosquitoborne_Diseases/West_Nile_Virus/> “Mosquito Control/West Nile, West Nile 2012.” Oklahoma City/County Health Department. Web. 13 March.2013. <https://www.occhd.org/community/environmentalprotection/mosquito> “West Nile Virus.” Wikipedia. Web. 14 March. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_virus>

    15. West Nile Informationfor 2013 Web Links https://www.occhd.org/fightthebite https://www.occhd.org/FightTheBite/FAQs https://www.occhd.org/community/environmentalprotection/mosquito https://www.occhd.org/FightTheBite/schools https://www.occhd.org/FightTheBite/seniors https://www.occhd.org/FightTheBite/publications-and-handouts Publications and Handouts 4 D’s of Mosquito Safety https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2721/original/Fight_the_Bite_85x11.pdf?1368025935 4 D’s of Mosquito Safety (Vietnamese) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2877/original/WNV_4D_FactSheet_2013-Vietnamese.pdf?1374004534 4 D’s of Mosquito Safety (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2723/original/Fight_the_Bite_85x11_spanish.pdf?1368026042 West Nile Virus Fact Sheet https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2703/original/WNV_4D_FactSheet_2013.pdf?1368023572 West Nile Virus Fact Sheet (Vietnamese) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2878/original/West-Nile-Virus_Fact-Sheet_Vietnamese.pdf?1374004727 West Nile Virus Fact Sheet (Spanish)

    16. West Nile Informationfor 2013 (cont.) Fight the Bite in Schools https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2705/original/Fight_the_Bite_Schools_flyer.pdf?1368023939 Fight the Bite in Schools (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2707/original/Fight_the_Bite_Schools_flyer_spanish.pdf?1368024094 Around the House https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2714/original/WNV_Around_the_House.pdf?1368024622 Around the House (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2715/original/WNV_Around_the_House-Spanish.pdf?1368024682 WNV – What You Can Do https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2717/original/WNV_What_You_Can_Do.pdf?1368025087 WNV – What You Can Do (Vietnamese) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2879/original/WNV_What_You_Can_Do-Vietnamese.pdf?1374004783 WNV – What You Can Do (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2719/original/WNV_What_You_Can_Do_Spanish.pdf?1368025208 WNV – What You Should Know https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2718/original/WNV_What_You_Should_Know.pdf?1368025108 WNV – What You Should Know (Vietnamese) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2880/original/WNV_What_You_Should_Know-Vietnamese.pdf?1374004827 WNV – What You Should Know (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2718/original/WNV_What_You_Should_Know.pdf?1368025108

    17. West Nile Informationfor 2013 (cont.) Large Print Materials WNV Fact Sheet https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2729/original/West_Nile_Virus_Fact_Sheet_large.pdf?1368455001 WNV Fact Sheet (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2733/original/West_Nile_Virus_Fact_Sheet_-_Spanish_large.pdf?1368455141 4 D’s https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2730/original/WNV_4D_FactSheet_2013_large.pdf?1368455021 4 D’s (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2734/original/WNV_4D_FactSheet_Spanish_large.pdf?1368455184 What You Can Do https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2731/original/WNV_What_You_Can_Do_large.pdf?1368455038 What You Can Do (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2735/original/WNV_What_You_Can_Do_Spanish_large.pdf?1368455215 What You Should Know https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2732/original/WNV_What_You_Should_Know_large.pdf?1368455056 What You Should Know (Spanish) https://www.occhd.org/system/files/2736/original/WNV_What_You_Should_Know_Spanish_large.pdf?1368455242

    18. West Nile Informationfor 2013 (cont.) 2013 Press Releases from OCCHD Take Precautions Against Mosquitoes This Labor Day Weekend – August 30, 2013 West Nile Virus Case Confirmed in OK County – August 14, 2013 Reducing Mosquito Habitat Key to Avoiding West Nile Virus – June 11, 2013 TV KFOR: October 3, 2013 http://kfor.com/2013/10/03/best-ways-to-avoid-west-nile-virus/ KWTV: October 3, 2013 http://www.news9.com/story/23602045/three-more-west-nile-deaths-in KFOR: August 14, 2013 http://kfor.com/2013/08/14/west-nile-confirmed-in-oklahoma-county/ KJRH: August 14, 2013 http://www.kjrh.com/news/state/oklahoma-county-woman-1st-in-state-to-be-diagnosed-with-west-nile-virus-for-2013 KTUL: August, 2013 http://www.ktul.com/story/23144530/okla-health-officials-report-first-west-nile-case NorthJersey.com: August 14, 2013 http://www.northjersey.com/news/health/219632631_Okla__health_officials_report_first_West_Nile_case.html KXII: August 14, 2013 http://www.kxii.com/news/headlines/Okla-health-officials-report-first-West-Nile-case-219632911.html

    19. West Nile Informationfor 2013 (cont.) Print OU Daily: September 8, 2013 http://oudaily.com/news/2013/sep/08/westnile_short/ NewsOK: September 5, 2013 http://newsok.com/west-nile-virus-claims-oklahoma-county-woman/article/3879550 MidwestCityOK.org: August 16, 2013 http://midwestcityok.org/recommendations-in-avoiding-west-nile-virus-disease The Lawton Constitution: August 15, 2013 http://www.swoknews.com/news-top/area/item/9391-health-officials-report-states-first-west-nile-case Norman Transcript: August 15, 2013 http://www.normantranscript.com/headlines/x1084955635/First-West-Nile-case-in-Okla-confirmed KOCO: August 14, 2013 http://www.koco.com/news/oklahomanews/okc/occhd-first-case-of-west-nile-hits-oklahoma-county/-/11777584/21470294/-/chcxpl/-/index.html Durant Democrat: August 14, 2013 http://durantdemocrat.com/news/news/2422664/Okla.-health-officials-report-first-West-Nile-case Oklahoma Gazette: June 26, 2013 http://www.okgazette.com/oklahoma/article-18621-buggin%E2%80%99.html MiamiOK.com: June 13, 2013 http://www.miamiok.com/article_33b9e6bf-9105-5e89-b969-9e97420f27e9.html Mandy Qualls, MS, CHES :: Communications Supervisor Oklahoma City-County Health Department OCCHD.ORG :: twitter.com/okchealth:: facebook.com/occhd

    20. 2013 Mosquito Program Executive Summary Municipality/ Health Department agreements for mitigation planning and trapping are vital to both parties and essential in planning and messaging. By sharing the workload and costs mosquito mitigation efforts are very manageable in cost. By using existing personnel and both parties providing “in kind” personnel costs the budget for the program remains primarily a supply budget; shared by both parties. Municipality responsibilities include: • providing manpower • funding mileage • providing batteries for the gravid traps The Health department responsibilities include: • purchasing the gravid traps • providing the expertise for sorting and testing • purchasing the VEC test kits • investigating all human cases of West Nile virus and providing GIS mapping of all applicable elements • Providing subject matter expertise for all West Nile and mosquito elements including information for websites, handouts and interviews if necessary.

    21. 2013 Mosquito Program Executive Summary (cont.) The cities and the Health Department have been able to perform these items with existing personnel. Utilization of GIS mapping has been very useful in the following ways: • Tracking of human cases to identify possible clusters related to local factors. • Tracking of larvacide application and mitigation efforts. • Identification of likely areas to place Gravid traps for mosquitoes. • Identification of areas that may need additional messaging related to mitigation efforts or personal protection. Utilization of local knowledge and use of existing technology and equipment are vital to mosquito mitigation efforts. Local personnel are acquainted with areas that have traditionally been mosquito problem areas such as abandoned swimming pools, stranded creeks and areas of excessive watering. Local code enforcement or health department intervention assists in providing residents with useful information that can be applied at home or work. Use of cameras for investigation of storm water conduits to identify mosquito larvae hotspots is very useful as well as larval dipping to determine the larval stage and subsequent treatment.

    22. 2013 Mosquito Program Executive Summary (cont.) Utilization of all available mapping assets is to aid in planning of mitigation efforts. These include topographic, floodplain, and soil profiles. Satellite viewing is also very useful. Working with students is a bonus for OCCHD and the students involved. This year we had an OU Masters of Public Health student that did a research paper designed around our mitigation efforts. The student compared our efforts with best practice information from all over the United States and found what we are doing is very applicable for our situation. We plan to utilize students where we can in the future. Budget This program is funded through local funding as well as CDC Epidemiology and Lab Capacity grants when available. In fiscal year 2013-2014 OCCHD has expended less than $14,000/$10,000 of that was used to purchase larvacide utilizing OSDH/CDC grant funds.

    23. 2013 Mosquito Program Executive Summary (cont.) Lessons learned from 2013-2014 • Budget preparation for upcoming activities is essential. Items such as batteries, nets for traps, and testing media need to be accounted for in this process. • Information sharing is essential to the success of the program. • The mosquito traps need overhead protection to keep them from flooding and also to help keep them from completely evaporating. • Mitigation and larvacide application training are needed for the municipalities. Moving forward OCCHD will continue to research all possible mitigation strategies along with our partners. This information will be shared with all stakeholders in the form of training. We will also continue to develop partnerships with other municipalities for trapping and information exchange to possibly expand the program as funds become available. This program is a great example of how government agencies should work together to achieve goals.