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Golden Bamboo

Golden Bamboo

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Golden Bamboo

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  1. Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea (Carr)Poaceae

  2. Biology • Native to southeast China • Introduced for the landscape • Visual and noise barriers • One of the most common bamboos in U.S. • Category II invasive by FLEPPC

  3. Distribution & Impacts • Commonly found from Maryland to Florida, far west as Arkansas • Isolated infestations in Oregon • Fast growth and spread, mainly through rhizomes, quickly displaces native vegetation • Best in full sun but also in open forests

  4. Golden Bamboo Distribution in Florida

  5. Identification

  6. Mature Plant • Can grow up to 30 feet in height • Green to yellow stems, swollen internodes at base • Rhizomes arise from side shoots

  7. Leaves • Leaves are lanceolate • Roughly 15 cm long • 1 to 2 cm wide • Flowers infrequently, may be several decades before flowering occurs

  8. Management Preventative Cultural Mechanical Biological Chemical

  9. Preventative • Limit planting as an ornamental • Remove existing plants, including resprouts and before seeds are produced • Avoid mechanical disturbance in forested areas – logging, rouging, etc. where golden bamboo fern is present

  10. Cultural • Alternative landscape plants to replace golden bamboo • Programs to educate homeowners about the problems associated with this plant and proper identification • Maintain good ground cover and mixture of plant species to reduce establishment

  11. Biological • There are no known biological control agents available for golden bamboo management in Florida or the southeastern U.S.

  12. Mechanical • Hand pull young plants, including all rhizomes, repeated pulling for resprouts • Mowing or cutting is effective, but must be repeated to control resprouts • Tillage, although likely impractical, will be very effective

  13. Chemical - Foliar • Over-the-top applications of glyphosate at 2 to 3% solution plus 0.5% surfactant • Thoroughly wet leaves and stems with herbicide • Retreatment will be necessary for complete eradication

  14. Chemical - Wipe • Cut stems and allow for 2 to 4 feet of regrowth • Apply (wipe) 100% glyphosate along the entire stem – use heavy cloth and rubber gloves • Will likely require retreatment

  15. Chemical – Cut Stump • Individual trees, near desirable species • Cut trunks/stems horizonally at or near ground level • Apply 25% solution of glyphosate • Cover the outer 20% of the stump • Marker (blue) dye is helpful

  16. Useful Links • Floridata Homepage: http://www.floridata.com/main_fr.cfm?state=Welcome&viewsrc=welcome.htm • University of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants: http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/welcome.html • University of Florida’s Cooperative Extension Electronic Data Information Source: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html

  17. Useful Links • The Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group. Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/index.htm • Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Plant Threats to Pacific Ecosystems: http://www.hear.org/pier/threats.htm • Invasive Plants of the Eastern United States: http://www.invasive.org

  18. Literature Cited Langeland, K.A. and K. Craddock Burks. 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. IFAS Publication SP 257. University of Florida, Gainesville. 165 pp