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Chapter 8. America Secedes from the Empire. Essential Question. To what degree was Great Britain unfair to the colonists?. A Thin Line of Heroes. Very few colonists actually fought. There were many Loyalists, especially in New York and Virginia.

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

America Secedes from the Empire

essential question
Essential Question
  • To what degree was Great Britain unfair to the colonists?
a thin line of heroes
A Thin Line of Heroes
  • Very few colonists actually fought.
  • There were many Loyalists, especially in New York and Virginia.
  • Blacks were both Patriots and Loyalists, but many joined the British army with promises of freedom.
second continental congress
Second Continental Congress
  • Met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775
    • All 13 colonies send delegates
    • They claimed the colonists only wanted to restore their rights within the British Empire.
      • They even sent an Olive Branch Petition to the King
    • But, there’s fighting going on and George Washington was chosen as leader of Continental Army
early in the war
Early in the War

Washington’s best general!

So close!

George Washington was chosen for his integrity, courage, and moral character

Benedict Arnold

A bold move to capture Montreal and Quebec failed.

hessian hirelings
Hessian Hirelings

German Hessians had little loyalty to the British army and were quick to desert when times got tough.

thomas paine
Thomas Paine
  • Many colonists were prepared to embrace Thomas Paine’s idea of all government officials deriving their power from the consent of the governed (republicanism).
    • Town meetings
    • Annual elections (House of Burgesses)
    • Committees of Correspondence
    • Absence of hereditary aristocracy
    • Equality of landowning

My book, Common Sense, convinces many colonists to fight for independence.

patriots and loyalists
Patriots and Loyalists
  • Patriots were called “whigs” and Loyalists were called “Tories.”
  • Many rich colonists and conservatives (those who wanted stability) were Loyalists.
battle of saratoga
Battle of Saratoga

The victory at Saratoga convinces the French to get involved in the war.

General Burgoyne gets defeated at Saratoga, New York.

revolution in diplomacy
Revolution in Diplomacy?
  • The British Parliament offered the colonists home rule within the empire after their defeat at Saratoga. Should they take it?
  • France offers a military and diplomatic alliance. Should the colonists take it?
  • Benjamin Franklin, American ambassador in Paris, accepts the French alliance.

self-interest trumps ideals baby!

colonial war
Colonial War

Lots of Loyalists in New York City, New Jersey, Quaker Pennsylvania, and the Carolinas.

Lots of Patriots in New England

Indians mostly sided with the British because they wanted to contain colonial westward expansion.

defeat at yorktown
Defeat at Yorktown

Your welcome

General Cornwallis was defeated at Yorktown, Virginia, with the help of the French navy.

Prime Minister North is demoralized.

King George III wants to fight more.

peace at paris
Peace at Paris

Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams were crafty and negotiated with the British behind France’s back. They negotiated a lot of land west of the Appalachians.

The Whigs replace the Tories in Parliament. The Whigs wanted peace and friendly relations in the future.

France wanted America to stay east of the Appalachian Mountains (France wanted to reward Spain for helping in the war by giving them lots of land in the West).

peace at paris1
Peace at Paris

America makes out like a bandit!


question to consider
Question to Consider
  • Was there anything Great Britain could have done to prevent American independence? If so, what? If not, why not?