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Methods of Treatment. Methods of Treatment. Surgery Hormone Therapy Radiation Chemotherapy Immunotherapy Targeted therapy. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/thehistoryofcancer/index. Why it works. Cancer – rapidly dividing cells Treatments Slow down dividing Break down cells

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methods of treatment1
Methods of Treatment
  • Surgery
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/thehistoryofcancer/index

why it works
Why it works
  • Cancer – rapidly dividing cells
  • Treatments
    • Slow down dividing
    • Break down cells
    • Trying to affect how quickly the cells are dividing
    • Except surgery which just removes the tumor formed
surgery
Surgery
  • Halsted – radical mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy
    • Believed that adequate removal of tumor would cure cancer
  • 1970’s – Proved less extensive surgery is equally effective for most women with breast cancer
  • Exploratory cancer to imaging
  • Less invasive methods to destroy tumors
    • Cryosurgery/Cryotherapy
    • Lasers to cut tissue or vaporize cancers
    • Radiofrequency ablation
hormone therapy
Hormone Therapy
  • Mostly for hormonally sensitive tissues and organs
  • Beats and oophorectomy
  • Huggins – metastatic prostate cancer
  • Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, LHRH analogs and inhibitors
radiation
Radiation
  • X-ray was developed and radiation became a method for treatment
  • Found daily minor doses improved patient’s chance for a cure
  • Precision – able to destroy cancer cells without affecting normal cells
    • Conformational Radiation Therapy (CRT)
    • Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)
  • Stereotactic radiosurgury and radiation therapy
  • Intraoperative radiation therapy
  • Chemical Modifiers/ Radiosensitizers
chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
  • Mustard gas and Nitrogen mustard (alkylating agents)
  • Aminopterin – able to block chemical reaction for DNA replicaiton
  • Methotrexate – cured metastatic cancer
    • led to development of chemotherapy
  • Many cancers can be controlled with chemo
  • Combination chemotherapy
  • Liposomal therapy
  • Used in adjuvant therapy
immunotherapy
Immunotherapy
  • Biological response modifier therapy
  • Agents are given to patients to imitate or initiate an immune response
  • Antigens and modified antibodies
  • Vaccines to boost the immune response to cancer cells
    • Sipuleucel-T (Provenge)
targeted therapy
Targeted Therapy
  • Influences the processes that control:
    • Growth
    • Division
    • Spread of cancer cells
    • The signals that cause cancer cells to die naturally
  • Growth signal inhibitors
  • Angiogenesis inhibitors
  • Apoptosis-inducing drugs
epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • Three observations launched the field
    • 1713 – Ramazzini and the nuns
    • 1775 – Percival Pott and chimney sweeps
    • 1620 – Venner and tobacco (Via Recta)
  • This field led to finding causes which allows people to protect against cancer
  • Molecular biologists can use these to study the interactions between genes and external factors – for treatment methods