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A Resource Guide for Teachers. History of Autism. Video source for following page: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaZUig03gT0. Affects individuals differently and to differing extents. Affects 1 in 100 children Four times more likely in boys than girls

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slide2

History of Autism

Video source for following page: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaZUig03gT0

affects individuals differently and to differing extents
Affects individuals differently and to differing extents
  • Affects 1 in 100 children
  • Four times more likely in boys than girls
  • No racial, ethnic or social boundaries
  • Autistic Disorder
  • Asperger’s Disorder
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
  • Rett’s Disorder
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder – NOS

Image source: http://www.psychiatrytalk.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/Autism-Spectrum-Disorder.jpg

Resource: http://www.autismsocietyca.org/resources.html

presents in a variety of ways and in varying degrees of severity
Presents in a variety of ways and in varying degrees of severity
  • Communication
  • Social interaction
  • Sensory impairment
  • Play
  • Possible behaviors:
    • Overactive or passive
    • Tantrums
    • Perseveration
    • Lack of common sense
    • Aggression
    • Resistant to change

Image source: http://www.displaysforschools.com/autism.html

Resource: http://www.autismsocietyca.org/resources.html

nancy minshew md university of pittsburgh school of medicine
Nancy Minshew, MD, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
  • In many autistic people, the brain develops too quickly beginning at about 12 months. By age ten, their brains are at a normal size, but "wired" atypically.
  • The result may be that autistic people think and perceive differently and have less of an ability to block sensory input.

Image source: http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/research/cefar/research/investigators.htm

Resource: http://autism.about.com/od/causesofautism/a/AutismBrain.htm

down side of unique wiring
Down side of unique wiring

"Autism really impacts behavioral function in the brain very broadly. It effects sensory, motor, memory, and postural control -- anything that requires a high degree of integration of information. The symptoms are most prominent in social interaction and problem solving because they require highest degree of interaction. They're socially/emotionally far more delayed than anyone ever thought, even if they have a high IQ. Temple Grandin, a well-known speaker and writer with autism, says she's emotionally about 7 - 10 years old."

Resource: http://autism.about.com/od/causesofautism/a/AutismBrain.htm

up side of unique wiring
Up side of unique wiring

"Autistic people have a really stellar ability to use the visual parts of the right side of the brain to compensate for problems with language processing. This may be the basis for detail-oriented processing -- and may be a decided advantage! Control children can't find Waldo. Autistic children can."

Resource: http://autism.about.com/od/causesofautism/a/AutismBrain.htm

slide10

Myths vs. Reality

Video source for following page: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvIRz-sZcmM

peter mundy phd uc davis mind institute
Peter Mundy, PhD, UC Davis Mind Institute

“Many people think of children with autism as flapping their arms … or spinning in some corner… Not to say that children don’t engage in that type of behavior, but many with autism don’t resemble that prototype at all, which is very surprising to teachers.”

Photo source: http://mindbrain.ucdavis.edu/people/pcmundy

peter mundy phd uc davis mind institute14
Peter Mundy, PhD, UC Davis Mind Institute

“They might learn very well, but they are not great social learners.”

“Children with autism have a difficult time paying attention to the right things at the right time when it comes to learning from other people.”

Photo source: http://mindbrain.ucdavis.edu/people/pcmundy

peter mundy phd uc davis mind institute15
Peter Mundy, PhD, UC Davis Mind Institute

“The biggest misconception is that most of us think children with autism don’t respond well to intervention, but we’re beginning to see that they do respond pretty well to intervention.”

Photo source: http://mindbrain.ucdavis.edu/people/pcmundy

tips for managing behavior
Tips for Managing Behavior
  • Know your child.
    • Extra-sensitive to sound and light?
    • Need lots of sensory input?
  • Modify your expectations.
    • Start with small goals and build to larger ones.
  • Modify the environment to make it safer.
    • Bolt shelves to the walls.
    • Latch cabinets and doors securely.

Resource: http://autism.about.com/od/autismhowtos/tp/behavetips.htm

tips for managing behavior17
Tips for Managing Behavior
  • Remove overwhelming sensory input.
    • Avoid overwhelming sensory settings
    • Consider ear plugs or distracting toys
  • Provide sensory input when needed.
    • Bear hugs
    • Security blankets
  • Look for positive outlets for unusual behaviors.
    • Climbing or spinning on playground equipment

Resource: http://autism.about.com/od/autismhowtos/tp/behavetips.htm

dr rebecca landa director of kennedy krieger center for autism
Dr. Rebecca Landa, Director of Kennedy Krieger Center for Autism

“Parents have good instincts when it comes to their children. If they’re concerned, they shouldn’t wait to see a professional for immediate in-depth screening and developmental surveillance. We know from other research that the sooner you can diagnose autism and start intervention, the better the child’s outcomes.”

Image source: http://autismointegral.blogspot.com/2009/07/sobre-la-ecolalia-ii-un-asunto-de-suma.html

Resource http://www.kennedykrieger.org/kki_news.jsp?pid=8773

parent teacher collaboration
Parent/Teacher Collaboration
  • Parental involvement is essential to child success.
  • Parents and teachers are equal partners in the educational process.
  • Teachers who feel confident in their abilities to collaborate will be more likely to reach out to parents.
  • Teachers must take responsibility for engaging families.

Resource: http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=psych_honproj

Hays '05, Amber, "Parent-Teacher Collaboration for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Teacher Training“ (2005). Honors Projects. Paper 9

parent teacher collaboration tools
Parent/Teacher Collaboration Tools
  • Daily Communication Book for each child
      • Teacher can ask the student what went on last night at home, and know the answers to expect.
      • Parents can do the same about school.
      • This can be very useful when it comes to IEP time.
  • Alternative: Take-home sticker chart
      • Divide into time periods with space for comments.
      • Comment on successes and difficulties.

Resource: http://www.autism-pdd.net/testdump/test14282.htm

social development
Social Development
  • When picked up, offering no "help"
  • Seems unaware of other people and their feelings
  • Treating other people as if they were inanimate objects
  • Doesn't point at objects to indicate wants or needs
  • Doesn't share achievements or interests
  • Has difficulty starting relationships with peers
  • Avoids eye contact with others
  • Has difficulty cooperating in groups
  • Prefers solitary activities

Resource: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism/46554

communication
Communication
  • Has delayed speech and use of gestures
  • Has difficultly understanding language
  • Has difficultly understanding nonverbal cues
  • Repetitive speech; echoes what others say (echolalia)
  • Confusion between the pronouns "I" and "You"
  • Memorizes words but can't use the words in context
  • Has difficulty with the give and take of conversation
  • Monotone voice

Resource: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism/46554

behavior
Behavior
  • Has rigid routines (may appear as if resistant to change)
  • Repetitive behaviors, such as hand flapping, rocking, finger flicking
  • Insistence on following a set pattern of behavior
  • Insistence on keeping objects in a certain, often intricate, physical pattern
  • Preoccupation with hands
  • Preoccupied with parts of an object instead of the whole object

Resource: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism/46554

behavior26
Behavior
  • Spins objects and/or fixates on spinning objects
  • Dislike of certain sounds
  • Dislike of touching certain textures
  • Dislike of being touched
  • Temper tantrums
  • Displays a lack of imaginative play; can't pretend
  • Self-injurious behavior

Resource: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism/46554

learning deficits
Learning Deficits
  • Has difficulty with abstract concepts
  • Has difficulty using skills learned in one environment in another environment (generalization)

Resource: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism/46554

associated features
Associated Features
  • Shows a lack of fear and/or awareness of danger
  • Laughing at inappropriate times
  • Sudden mood changes
  • Self-injurious behavior
  • Toilet training, sleeping, and/or eating problems

Resource: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/autism/46554

slide29

How Individuals with Autism

View Themselves

Video source for following page: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RL_9KgOBgXg&NR=1

slide31

How Individuals with Autism

Want to be Treated

Video source for following page: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muTl2U-bE9o&NR=1

slide33

Suggestions for Working with

Students with Autism

ten ideas for inclusive classrooms
Ten Ideas for Inclusive Classrooms

“These tips are designed for the teacher who is just beginning to work with a student with autism. … They can help a teacher of any grade level or subject area plan lessons and engineer a safe and comfortable classroom for students with autism and other unique learning characteristics.”

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

Image source: http://www.paulakluth.com/index.html

1 learn about the learner from the learner
1. Learn About the Learner From the Learner
  • Ask the student to …
    • Take a short survey or sit for a brief interview
    • Create a list of teaching tips that might help him/her
  • Ask the student’s family to …
    • Share teaching tips they have found useful in the home
    • Provide videotapes of the student in different activities
  • Observe the student in another classroom to learn …
    • What can this student do well?
    • Where is he/she strong?
    • What has worked to create success for the student?

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

2 support transitions
2. Support Transitions
  • Some students with autism struggle with transitions. Teachers can minimize their discomfort when transitioning.
    • Give five and one minute reminders to the class before any transition.
    • Create a transitional activity such as writing in a homework notebook or singing a short song about “cleaning up”.
    • Ask all students to move from place to place with a partner
    • Give the student a transition aid, such as a toy, object, or picture, to carry.

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

3 give fidget supports
3. Give Fidget Supports
  • Allow the student to move frequently
  • Provide the student with an object to manipulate during lessons
    • Possibilities include Slinky toys, Koosh balls, straws, stir sticks, strings of beads, rubber bands or even key chains that have small toys attached to them
  • Allow the student to draw or doodle on a notepad, write on his/her folder, or sketch in a notebook during a lesson

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

4 help with organizing
4. Help with Organizing
  • Have students copy assignments, pack book bags, put materials away, and clean work spaces together
  • Ask all students to do two-minute clean-up and organization sessions at the end of class
  • Provide checklists around the classroom- especially in key activity areas. (e.g., Did you complete the assignment? Is your name on the paper?) or on the front of the classroom door (e.g., Do you have a pencil? Notebook? Homework?)

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

5 assign class jobs
5. Assign Class Jobs
  • A student who likes to organize things might be put in charge of collecting equipment in physical education.
  • A student who is comforted by order might be asked to straighten the classroom library.
  • A student with autism might be given the chore of completing the lunch count. Counting the raised hands and having to record the right numbers in the right spaces might help build that student’s literacy and numeracy skills.

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

6 provide breaks
6. Provide Breaks
  • Some students work best when they can pause between tasks and take a break of some kind (walk around, stretch, or simply stop working).
    • Some will need to walk up and down a hallway once or twice.
    • Others will be fine if allowed to wander around in the classroom.
  • Possibly use these as instructional pauses.
    • Give students a topic to discuss, then let them talk and walk.
    • After ten minutes of movement, bring the students back together and ask them to discuss their conversations.

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

7 focus on interests
7. Focus on Interests
  • Use the student’s interests, strengths, skills, areas of expertise, and gifts as tools for teaching.
    • Students who find conversation and “typical” ways of socializing a challenge, may be adept at connecting with others in relation to an activity or favorite interest.
  • Any of the interests students bring to the classroom might also be used as part of the curriculum.

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

8 rethink writing
8. Rethink Writing
  • Give the student encouragement as he or she attempts to do some writing- a word, a sentence, or a few lines.
  • Allow the student to use a computer, word processor, or an old typewriter for some lessons.
  • Use peers, classroom volunteers, teachers, and paraprofessionals as scribes for a student who struggles with movement and motor problems, writing as the student with autism speaks ideas and thoughts.

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

9 give choices
9. Give Choices
  • Allow the student to choose which role to take in a cooperative group, which topics to study or which problems to solve, and how to receive personal assistance and supports. Examples:
    • Solve five of the ten problems assigned
    • Raise your hand or stand if you agree
    • Work alone or with a small group
    • Read quietly or with a friend
    • Use a pencil, pen, or the computer
    • Do your research in the library or in the resource room
    • Take notes using words or pictures
    • Choose any topic for your term paper

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

10 include
10. Include
  • To learn appropriate behaviors, students need to be included to observe how their peers talk and act.
  • They need to be in a space where they can listen to and learn from others who are socializing.
  • Teachers need to see the learner functioning in the inclusive classroom to know what types of specialized supports will be needed.
  • The best way to learn about supporting students with autism in inclusive schools is to include them.

Resource: http://www.paulakluth.com/articles/tenideas.html

autism support groups
Autism Support Groups
  • Autism Speakshttp://www.autismspeaks.org/
  • Autism Speaks Networkhttp://autismspeaksnetwork.ning.com/
  • Autism Society of Californiahttp://www.autismsocietyca.org/
  • Autism Societyhttp://www.autism-society.org/
additional resources on autism spectrum disorders
Additional Resources on Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • TeachersFirst.comhttp://www.teachersfirst.com/content/spectopics/autism-asperger.cfm
  • Autism Society of Americahttp://www.autism-society.org/
  • National Institute of Mental Healthhttp://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-index.shtml
  • Wrightslaw.comhttp://www.wrightslaw.com/info/autism.index.htm