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California Association of School Psychologists Burlingame, CA March 18, 2004. The Revisions of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-II) Alan S. Kaufman Mark H. Daniel.
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California Association of School Psychologists Burlingame, CA March 18, 2004 The Revisions of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-II) Alan S. Kaufman Mark H. Daniel
Smaller ethnic differences for African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans Theory-based** Novel tasks** Teaching Items** Original K-ABC—The Positives
Interpretive Manual** Many validity studies in manual** Special Education children in standardization sample** Easy to Administer & Score Includes Nonverbal Scale Original K-ABC—The Positives
Excluded verbal ability from measure of intelligence Measured too few abilities (only Sequential-Simultaneous Processing) Alternative interpretations feasible Too much memory, not enough reasoning ability Original K-ABC—The Negatives
Keep the positives of the K-ABC and eliminate its negatives Develop a test that will help effect change Expand age range to 3-18 years (K-ABC range was 2½ -12½ ) Goals of the KABC-II
Offer flexibility to examiner Two Theories—Luria & CHC Two Global scores—MPI & FCI Nonverbal Scale Core Battery + Supplementary Subtests + Supplementary Delayed Recall Scale + Out-of-Level Norms Goals of the KABC-II
Keep the Best K-ABC Subtests and develop interesting new ones Eight K-ABC subtests were eliminated Eight K-ABC subtests were retained Eight new subtests were added to the KABC-II Goals of the KABC-II
Spatial Memory Magic Window Photo Series Matrix Analogies Arithmetic Faces & Places Reading: Decoding Reading: Understanding Subtests Eliminated from K-ABC
Word Order Number Recall Triangles Face Recognition Riddles Expressive Vocabulary (Extended to age 18) Hand Movements (Supplementary subtest only) Gestalt Closure (Supplementary subtest only) Subtests Retained from K-ABC
Atlantis (Immediate & Delayed) Rebus (Immediate & Delayed) Conceptual Thinking (ages 3-6) Rover (ages 6-18) Block Counting (ages 5-18) Pattern Reasoning (ages 5-18) Story Completion (ages 6-18) Verbal Knowledge New KABC-II Subtests
Measures a wider variety of processing abilities: Continues to measure Sequential & Simultaneous New emphasis on learning ability Increased emphasis on reasoning ability (planning) Features of the KABC-II
Wide age range for consistency of assessment throughout the school years Processing orientation helps give insights into how the child learns Five scales help identify processing disorders (and integrities) for the assessment of SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES KABC-II: Key Features
Based on: Sperry’s cerebral lateralization theory Luria’s neuropsychological theory Definition of intelligence: The integration of sequential and simultaneous processing, distinct from language ability and factual knowledge Theory of Original K-ABC
Original K-ABC Structure Sequential Processing Mental Processing Composite Simultaneous Processing Achievement
Dual Theoretical Foundation Name of Luria Term CHC Term KABC-II Scale Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr) Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Visual Processing (Gv) Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Crystallized Ability (Gc) Learning Ability Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Planning Ability Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Mental Processing Index (MPI) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI)
Hybrid of the new and the old: Roots in Luria’s theory Simultaneously rests on the CHC model Provides alternativeframeworks for interpreting the 4 or 5 scales that compose the battery Features of the KABC-II
Knowledge /Gc:Verbal KnowledgeAll Verbal Items What has many contests, cowboys, and horses? What is made of nylon, is carefully folded, and is needed for skydiving?
Knowledge /Gc:Verbal KnowledgeAll Verbal Items What is as big as a fist, has a beat, and keeps people alive? What is a liquid, is silver-colored, and is used in thermometers?
Luria perspective—Learning/Glr LEARNING ABILITY represents the integration of the processes associated with all three functional units, placing a premium on Block 1 (Attention) and Block 2 (Coding, Storage, & Sensory Integration) Dual theoretical model
Luria perspective—Sequential/Gsm SEQUENTIAL PROCESSING is associated primarily with the Coding functions of Block 2 (Successive or Sequential information processing) ** Arranging input in sequential or serial order to solve a problem, where each idea is linearly and temporally related to the preceding one Dual theoretical model
Luria perspective—Simultaneous/Gv SIMULTANEOUS PROCESSING is associated primarily with the Coding functions of Block 2 (Simultaneous information processing), but also with the Planning functions of Block 3 **Synthesizing stimuli simultaneously (holistically), usually spatially, to produce the appropriate solution. Blends Luria’s Blocks 2 & 3 to enhance complexity of KABC-II tasks Dual theoretical model
Luria perspective—Planning/Gf PLANNING ABILITY is associated primarily with the Planning, Executive Functioning, and Organizing functions of Block 3 (Frontal Lobe) **measures the high-level, executive processes associated with Block 3, such as decision making, planning, generating hypotheses, self-monitoring, & programming Dual theoretical model
Luria perspective—Knowledge/Gc ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE Like Learning Ability, it represents the integration of the processes associated with all three functional units Unlike Learning Ability, it depends heavily on cultural background & experience, quality of home & school environment, and motivation. Consequently, this scale is excluded from the Luria model and its global score (MPI) Dual theoretical model
Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective: Assesses five broad abilities (of the ten in the full CHC model) Crystallized ability is just as essential as other components Dual theoretical model
CHC Broad Abilities Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr)—storing and efficiently retrieving newly-learned or previously learned information Short-Term Memory (Gsm)—taking in and holding information, and then using it within a few seconds Dual theoretical model
CHC Broad Abilities(continued) Visual Processing (Gv)—perceiving, storing, manipulating, and thinking with visual patterns (KABC-II tasks deliberately add Gf) Fluid Reasoning (Gf)—solving novel problems by using reasoning abilities such as induction and deduction Crystallized Ability (Gc)—demonstrating the breadth and depth of knowledge acquired from one’s culture (KABC-II tasks add Gf) Dual theoretical model
Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective: Compatible with most other comprehensive cognitive batteries Consistent with several other Kaufman tests, such as KAIT, K-BIT, & KBIT-2 Forms the basis for the popular cross-battery assessment approach Dual theoretical model
Theoretical orientation of each model Luria model: focuses more on problem-solving skills than on acquired knowledge CHC model: more conventional view of cognitive functioning, well suited to cross-battery assessment Selecting the model: guidelines
Selection must be made before administering the KABC-II The CHC model is the model of choice, except in cases where the examiner believes that including measures of acquired knowledge would compromise the validity of the Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI). Selecting the model: guidelines
In those cases, the Luria-based global score (MPI) is preferred. The CHC model is given priority over the Luria model because we believe that knowledge/Gc is, in principle, an important aspect of cognitive functioning. Selecting the model: guidelines
Cases where the Luria model (MPI) would be preferred include, but are not limited to, the following: a child from a bilingual background a child whose non-mainstream cultural background may have affected knowledge acquisition and verbal development Selecting the model: guidelines
A child with known or suspected language disorders, whether expressive, receptive, or mixed receptive-expressive A child with known or suspected autism Selecting the model: guidelines
In addition, an examiner with a firm commitment to the Luria processing approach, who believes that acquired knowledge should be excluded from any global cognitive score—regardless ofthe reason for referral—may use the KABC-II in the same way as the original K-ABC, as a Luria-based instrument. Selecting the model: guidelines
Otherwise, we recommend the CHC model for most other situations, including evaluation of children with known or suspected disabilities in reading, written expression, or mathematics; mental retardation; behavior disorders; or attentional disorders such as ADHD. Selecting the model: guidelines
The CHC model is particularly appropriate for assessing children for entry into programs for the gifted and talented. Such programs typically emphasize academic (Gc) skills. Also, Gc tends to be a strength of gifted children, so the CHC model is fairer and more suitable for this application. Selecting the model: guidelines
This set of guidelines does not imply that we consider one model to be theoretically superior to the other. Both theories are equally important as foundations of the KABC-II. Selecting the model: guidelines
The CHC psychometric theory emphasizes specific cognitive abilities. The Luria neuropsychological theory emphasizes "processes," namely the way children process information when solving problems. Selecting the model: guidelines
Both approaches are valid for understanding how children learn and solve new problems, which is why each scale has two names, one from each theory. Selecting the model: guidelines
Ultimately, decisions are functions of: Reason for Referral—For example, children with reading disabilities are ordinarily given the CHC model whereas children with language disabilities are given the Luria model Child’s Background—For example, the Luria model is preferred for children from bilingual backgrounds Selecting the model: guidelines
Examiner’s TheoreticalOrientation—Examiners devoted to Luria’s approach are permitted to administer the Luria model of the KABC-II, regardless of other considerations. Selecting the model: guidelines