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  1. Knowledge Capture and Transferat Kraft Foods KM@ KSU Webinar Series March 20, 2014 Kraft Foods RDQ&I Knowledge Management Nanako Mura Jeni Wolf

  2. AGENDA • Context • About Kraft Foods and KM • Our KM strategy and approach • Defining and Capturing Critical Knowledge • Assessing and prioritizing areas for Knowledge Capture • MASK method for capturing and modeling tacit knowledge • Knowledge Mapping for role transitions • Final Thoughts

  3. Kraft at a Glance • Our products are found In 98% of U.S. households, 99% in Canada • 10 brands with more than $500MM in 2012 annual sales • Another 19 brands over $100MM • $18+ billion net revenue • More than 23,000 employees Source: Kraft Foods Group, Nielsen

  4. Over 300 Years of Iconic Brands… and Counting 1897 2004 1979 1906 1957 1880 1930 1988 1777 1903 1965 1927 1889 1937 1862 1700 1800 1900 2000 1892 1870 1896 1905 1959 1982 1780 1928 2011 1972 1883 1933 1983 1954 1966 1975 1899 Source: Kraft Foods Archives

  5. Kraft has over 750 R&D employees located across US and Canada Montreal Toronto Madison Tarrytown Glenview East Hanover Memphis RDQ&I Centers Satellite locations

  6. Research, Development, Quality and Innovation Organization Chuck Davis EVP RDQ&I Business Units Center Support Strategy Packaging Research and Innovation Quality and Food Safety Research & Supplier Integration Canada Foodservice Beverage Assoc. Director- IP, KM, Training Nanako Mura Cheese & Dairy Assoc. Prin. Scientist - Training Open Oscar Mayer Enhancers and Snack Nuts Assoc. Prin. Scientist – IP Rathna Koka KM, IP Analyst Kathy Sullivan Assoc. Prin. Scientist - KM Jeni Wolf Meals and Desserts

  7. Role of the Knowledge Management Team

  8. Impetus for creating a Knowledge Management strategy Knowing What We Know

  9. Situations resulting in knowledge at risk

  10. Over the last 3-4 years, the KM strategy has focused on helping R&D “Know What We Know” Expertise ManagementConnect to and lever experts Collaboration & Social Networks Lever the collective power of the organization Documentation & Content Management Capture, organize, transfer & archive information Tacit Knowledge CaptureCapture experiential knowledge, know how Underlying everything are tools/processes and change management

  11. Knowledge management plays an important role in supporting Kraft’s mission and key strategies Make Kraft THE North American Food &Beverage Company

  12. Assessing Tacit Knowledge Needs Based on MASKII a technique developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission by staff at the Universite de Technologie de Troyes Structured approach Identify most critical fields at risk Match those fields with an appropriate KRT method

  13. Identify Fields of Knowledge for Retention KM Group Role: Prioritize needs against resource availability and available techniques • Solicit a list from RDQ&I Leadership • Representation from each Business Unit • Focus on areas most important to the Business • Employees likely to retire in the next 1-3 years • Technical areas with uni-personal knowledge • Technologies that are critical but not formally documented

  14. Identify Critical Knowledge Evaluate both present and predicted future criticality • Rare • Number and availability of knowledge holders • Availability of knowledge outside Kraft • Are we a leader in this field • Useful • Alignment with mission and goals • Emergence of the field • Adaptability of the field • Difficult to acquire • Difficulty of identifying sources for the knowledge • Role of networks • Difficult to apply • Depth of the knowledge • History of the field • Role of external factors

  15. Interview Process • 2 technical experts + 1 manager per knowledge field • Scored the knowledge field against the 11 questions • Questions were not shared prior to the interview • Interviews were less than 30 minutes each • Gathered commentary • Gives meaning and depth to the score • Used to help scope out knowledge capture • Gathered names of additional people with expertise

  16. Analyze Each Field of Knowledge

  17. Prioritizing Each Field of Knowledge

  18. Prioritized Fields for Capture • Scores sub totaled for each area of criticality • Scores totaled for each Field of Knowledge • Final recommendation based on 3 factors: • Scores • Commentary • Timeline of retiring experts

  19. Knowledge Books and the MASK Method (Method for Analyzingand Structuring Knowledge) • First developed for the French Atomic Energy Commission • Later developed at academic institutions • Further developed through applications in large companies

  20. Success Factors • The expert(s) must be available to participate and make the Knowledge Book a priority • Management support is key • Engage a Recipient early to support the expert • The needs of future recipients of the Knowledge Book must be considered • Existing relevant documentation should be included in the Knowledge Book • By reference or including the content • Important not to under estimate time requirements of this step • Knowledge Books should be living objects • A champion identified to own it and socialize it • Integrated into training on the topic • The field covered by the Knowledge Book must be largely stabilized • 80% well defined and stable; 20% exploratory and growing • Human factors • Ability of experts to communicate knowledge in a structured format

  21. End Product PowerPoint in editable form Table of Contents is the Entry Point into the Knowledge Book; click to navigate

  22. Knowledge Book Steps … 2 H 4 H 4 H 2-6 Wks TBD All interviews are recorded

  23. Scoping the Knowledge Book • Define the breadth and depth of the field of knowledge • Identify areas for focus • Identify areas that are out of scope • Incorporate information gathered during the knowledge assessment • Validate and obtain feedback • Direct manager of Expert • Knowledge Book Champion • Knowledge Book Recipients • Scope flexes during the process and is non-exhaustive

  24. MASK Elicitation Interviews • 1:1 meetings between the facilitator and the expert • 1 expert at a time to avoid cross talk between experts • Facilitator has no prior knowledge of the subject • Avoid assumptions and bias • Common question are why, how, what else, what is next • Scope document helps initiate conversation • Conversation is allowed to flow naturally • Modeling is done via notes on large pieces of paper • Computer is avoided – digital distraction • Audio of conversation is recorded • Used to help fill in the models • 4 hours of elicitation takes 8-16 hours to fully model

  25. MASK Modeling Fundamentals A body of knowledge (Knowledge Corpus) can be reflected in 6 points of view:

  26. Sample MASK Activity Model Making a Pie Crust • Bowl • Pastry Cutter • Measuring Cups • Ingredient knowledge • Process knowledge • Flour • Butter • Water • Refrigerator • Plastic wrap Prepare the pie dough ? Dough • Rolling pin • Pie plate Dough know-how Rest the dough Rested Dough Knowledge of baking phenomena • Oven Shape the crust • It is best to roll the dough on a smooth surface like a stone countertop • Use a small amount of flour to avoid sticking. Too much flour will toughen the dough Crust ready to bake Bake the crust Baked Crust

  27. Sample MASK Phenomenon Model Baking a Pie Crust Influence • Type of flour • Type of fat Source Target Flour particles coated in fat Flaky pie crust • Steam is released • Doug is slightly expanded. • Triggering Event: • Combining of ingredients • Cooking • Consequence: • Thin and flaky crust Flow • Water is converted to steam during baking. • Size of coated flour particle impacts final texture • Over mixing of ingredients can limit steam • Initial oven temperature impacts steam generation

  28. Sample Concept Model Pastry Pastry Cakes Pie Pastry Yeast Dough Sheet Cakes Muffins • Bread • Bagels • Sweet rolls • Donuts Sweet Dough Bread Dough Short Crust Flaky Crust

  29. Sample Task Model Making Bread Making Bread // // Dust hands with reserved flour Knead the dough Form the loaf Bake the loaf Measure flour into a bowl Set ½ cup of flour aside Cover the loaf and rise Make a well in the flour Add yeast Add water Specialty bread Plain bread Add additional ingredients Leave as is

  30. History Model Evolution of the Knowledge Domain Timeline B Ex. Package Development Timeline C Ex. Product Launch Timeline A Ex. Product Development Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 OBJECTIVE • Milestone (date) Generation 1 Generation 2 OBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE • Milestone (date) Generation 1 Generation 2

  31. Lineage Model Evolution of Specific Concepts or Objects Evolution Drivers Pros and cons 1st Generation 2nd Generation Start Date – End Date Start Date – End Date Pros and cons 3rd Generation Start Date – End Date Evolution Drivers Pros and cons

  32. Structure of a Knowledge Book • Table of Contents is the starting point • Divided into sections accessed by links from a Table of Contents • Many links within the models to additional explanation and related materials • Elicitation style and approach of the expert drives the end product • Books that have fewer models and more text explanation • Books that have more models and more pictures and charts

  33. Example of a Highly Visual Book

  34. Example of a Highly Textual Book

  35. Advantages of Knowledge Modeling • A picture is worth a thousand words • Wide applicability – not case specific • Ability to reflect a complex knowledge area • Captures decision processes and ways of thinking • Several models taken together for a complete depiction • Extensive linking of models and content • Integrates and incorporates information sources • If a document exists incorporate rather than re-model • Link to external content, reference it or add it verbatim within the book • Ex. Technical Reports, photos, videos, books, journal articles

  36. Socializing the Knowledge Book Expert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient presents the book Expert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient submits the book as a Tech Report in R&D Suite Champion communicates the existence of the book Recipient updates the book Used as an element of formal training classes offered through Kraft University

  37. Process Cheese Knowledge Book – 18 Months Later “I found it extremely enlightening because it highlighted and put structure on what we learn.  Often we create knowledge in seemingly random efforts, but this exercise help organize our areas of expertise and even highlight areas that could use more attention in the future” – Kraft expert Systematically shared via presentation shortly after completion Contents are generalized for training for non-technical internal audiences Verbatim excerpts for technical training Tool for new employee orientation Used by senior experts as a standard reference

  38. Additional Reading How to capitalize knowledge with the MASK method? Nada Matta; Jean-Louis Ermine; Gerard Aubertin; Jean-Yves Trivin The MASK Method: English Documents from Jean-Louis Ermine

  39. Knowledge Mapping For fast knowledge retention and transfer Mind map of responsibilities and activities that make up a role Shows connections and interdependencies within a role Act as a training guide for managers who are new to their roles Identify knowledge that is unique to an individual Blueprint for future knowledge transfer

  40. Sample Knowledge Map (Concise View)

  41. Final Thoughts • Keys to Success • Senior Management support and advocacy • Must be business driven • Make it engaging and rewarding for the experts • Involvement in Knowledge Retention and Transfer Activity is the ultimate professional complement