Poetry Poetic Devices and Terminology
Speaker The voice through which the poem is told, not necessarily the poet.
Form and Structure • Lines-are what poems are written in and can vary in length. • Stanzas-section of a poem which contains a group of lines, stanzas are separated by a space. • Form-the way a poem’s lines and words are arranged on the page.
Form and Structure • Free verse- poetry without a regular pattern of rhyme, rhythm, or meter. • Lyric poem- melodic poem that expresses observations or feelings of a single speaker • Narrative poem- poem that tells a story • Syntax- grammatical arrangement of words and phrase • Parallelism- the repetition of grammatical structure • Anaphora- the repetition of word or phrases at the beginnings of successive clauses
Form and Structure • Couplet- a pair lines that are similar in length and subject matter (Rhyming couplets have end rhyme) • Quatrain- four line stanzas of any kind, rhymed, metered, or otherwise. • Sestet- six line stanzas or the final six lines of a sonnet • Enjambment- the running over of a sentence or thought from one line or verse to the next without punctuation
Tone and Diction Tone- the attitude of the speaker or writer toward the subject or audience Diction- the writer’s choice of words
Sound Devices • Rhyme-is the repetition of sounds at the end of words. • Rhyme Scheme- a pattern of end rhymes in a poem. • Rhythm-the pattern of sound created by stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. • Meter- a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, which can be repeated from line to line.
Internal rhyme- the use of rhyming words within a line. Example: “I knew a little girl who had a little curl.” End rhyme-the use of rhyming words at the end of lines. Example: “Twinkle, twinkle little star. How I wonder where you are.” Sound Devices-Rhyme
Sound Devices-Slant Rhyme • Slant rhyme (near-rhyme, half, rhyme, off-rhyme, imperfect rhyme)- when the final consonant sounds in two words are the same, but their preceding vowel sounds are different • Example: pick/pack, lad/lids, born/barn, road/rid
Refrain- phrases, or lines used more than once in a poem. Example: “My beautiful Annabel Lee.” Alliteration- repeating of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. Example: “Shimmy Sham Sham the Showboat man Shifted his show with Shenanigans.” Sound Devices
Sound Devices • Onomatopoeia- using words that sound like what they mean. • Example: “The tuba went umpa-pa.”
Sound Devices • Assonance- repetition of the same or similar vow sounds followed by different consonant sounds in accented syllables • Example: “that hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.”
Sound Devices Consonance- repetition of the same or similar consonant sounds in close proximity Ex: A blessing in disguise (notice the repeated “s” sound)
Poetic Devices • Imagery- words or phrases that appeal to the five senses. • Example: “A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling my beautiful Annabel Lee.”
Figurative Language • Simile- comparison of two unlike things with common qualities using comparative words such as like, as, than, resembles • Example: “Without you, I am like a wave without a shore.”
Figurative Language • Metaphor- comparison of two unlike things with common qualities, not using comparative words Direct- states one thing is another Implied- suggests that one thing is the other Example: “The cloud is a white marshmallow.”
Figurative Language • Extended metaphor- an author uses the same metaphor over several lines or an entire poem • Well, son, I'll tell you:Life for me ain't been no crystal stair.It's had tacks in it,And splinters,And boards torn up,And places with no carpet on the floor—Bare.But all the time I'se been a-climbin' on,And reachin' landin's,And turnin' corners, --from “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes
Figurative Language • Personification- describing an animal or object as if it were human or had human qualities. • Example: “The dish ran away with the spoon.”
Figurative Language • Symbol- a person, place, object, or action that stands for something beyond itself. • Example: “I’d rather be a tall ugly weed that stands alone than a flower that is handled and picked.”
Figurative Language • Hyperbole- using exaggeration to make a point. • Example: “The stale cookie is as hard as a rock.”