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Long-Term Memory. Dr. Claudia J. Stanny EXP 4507 Memory & Cognition Spring 2009. Overview. Types of Long Term Memory Relation between encoding and retrieval Encoding processes and their consequences Retrieval strategies Autobiographical memory.

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long term memory

Long-Term Memory

Dr. Claudia J. Stanny

EXP 4507

Memory & Cognition

Spring 2009

  • Types of Long Term Memory
  • Relation between encoding and retrieval
  • Encoding processes and their consequences
  • Retrieval strategies
  • Autobiographical memory

Claudia J. Stanny

types of long term memory
Types of Long Term Memory

Claudia J. Stanny

distinctive characteristics of ltm
Distinctive Characteristics of LTM
  • Organization of information
    • Schemas
  • Capacity
  • Duration
    • Bahrick: permastore
  • Encoding – impact on retention
  • Retrieval mechanisms
    • Forgetting: availability versus accessablity

Claudia J. Stanny

encoding strategies levels of processing
Encoding Strategies: Levels of Processing
  • Craik & Lockhart (1972)
  • Orienting tasks assigned at study to induce different levels of processing
    • Shallow processing (physical features of stimuli)

Does the word contain an E or a G?

Is the word presented in capital or lower case letters?

    • Intermediate processing

Write down a word that begins with the same sound.

    • Deep processing (semantic encoding)

Rate words on your perception of their PLEASANTNESS


Claudia J. Stanny

recognition performance for words processed at different levels
Recognition performance for words processed at different levels

Data from EXP 3082 (2002)

Claudia J. Stanny

variations on deep processing
Variations on Deep Processing
  • What kinds of processing “count” as deep processing?
  • Distinctive encoding
    • Encoding differsor makes a stimulus stand out
    • Isolation effects; unique encodings
  • Elaborate encoding
    • Create a code that includes multiple aspects
    • Complex codes; many connections to other representations

Claudia J. Stanny

self reference effect
Self-Reference Effect
  • Processing task:
  • Does this word relate to you?
  • Recognition performance is as good as for a semantic processing task
  • Biggest improvement seen when participants think the word does apply to them (46%) than when it does not (34%)

Claudia J. Stanny

generation effect slamecka graf 1978
Generation EffectSlamecka & Graf (1978)
  • What is the effect of processing depth when you generate the code yourself versus when you have the coding given to you?
  • Read Condition
    • Shallow: SAVE – CAVE
    • Deep: SEA – OCEAN
  • Generate Condition
    • Shallow: SAVE – C____ (rhyme) CAVE
    • Deep: SEA – O_____ (synonym) OCEAN

Claudia J. Stanny

encoding specificity
Encoding Specificity
  • Match between cues encoded at study and cues available during retrieval

Claudia J. Stanny

emotion mood and memory
Emotion, Mood and Memory
  • Pollyanna Principle
  • Rate of forgetting for pleasant & unpleasant events
  • Mood-dependent congruence
  • Mood-dependent memory (encoding specificity)

Claudia J. Stanny

retrieval from ltm
Retrieval from LTM
  • Types of Retention Tasks
  • Explicit Memory Tasks
    • Aware that memory is being used/tested
    • Subjective experience of intentional use of memory
  • Implicit Memory Tasks
    • Task is perceived as a problem-solving task or other cognitive challenge

Claudia J. Stanny

comparing memory tasks
Comparing Memory Tasks

Explicit Memory Tasks

Implicit Memory Tasks

Word completion task


Word stem completion task

OC __ __ __

Repetition priming (RT tasks)

Lexical decision task

Anagram solving

LVGEALI → _______

  • Recall
  • Cued recall
  • Recognition tests
  • yes/no recognition
  • multiple choice tests

Claudia J. Stanny

evidence for different types of ltm
Evidence for different types of LTM
  • Dissociation of performance on explicit and implicit memory tasks
  • Variables improve performance on explicit memory but do not influence implicit memory performance
    • Depth of processing
  • Variables improve implicit memory performance but do not influence explicit memory
    • Benefits of number of repetitions
  • Note: some variables have the same effect on both types of task (proactive interference)

Claudia J. Stanny

effect of lop on performance on an implicit and an explicit memory task
Effect of LOP on performance on an implicit and an explicit memory task
  • Shallow processing task
    • Does the word have a B or a P?
  • Deep processing task
    • Rate the word on its pleasantness (1 – 7)
  • Implicit memory test
    • Anagram task
  • Explicit memory test
    • Free recall

Data: EXP 4507L Spring 2006

Claudia J. Stanny

  • Differences in performance by amnesiacs on implicit and explicit memory tasks

Claudia J. Stanny

how do experts differ from novices
How do experts differ from novices?
  • Amount of knowledge in area of expertise
  • Quality of organization of information in LTM
    • More efficient encoding of new information
    • More successful retrieval of information
  • Differences in cognitive strategies used
    • Chunking and organization of new material
    • Identifying distinctive characteristics of stimuli
    • Procedures used to solve problems
  • Better metacognition about processing
    • Judgments about task difficulty
    • Monitoring progress on a problem

Claudia J. Stanny

expertise is context specific
Expertise is Context-Specific
  • Expertise emerges from extensive deliberate practice in a particular domain
    • 10 years of deliberate practice required (Ericsson, 2003)
  • Expertise in one domain does not make one an expert in every domain
    • Superior memory performance in one area of expertise does not generalize to superior memory performance in general
    • Problem identification and efficient solution is also domain-specific

Claudia J. Stanny

autobiographical memory
Autobiographical Memory
  • Special case of episodic memory
  • Memory for events of our personal life
  • Interaction with semantic memory:
    • Role of schemas in autobiographical recall
    • Consistency bias
  • Source monitoring
    • Identifying the origin of a memory or belief

Claudia J. Stanny

recall of autobiographical memories across the life span rubin 1997
Recall of autobiographical memories across the life span (Rubin, 1997)

Reminiscence Bump

Forgetting Function

Infantile Amnesia

Claudia J. Stanny

flashbulb memories
Flashbulb Memories
  • Highly detailed episodic memories of an event
  • Contain many autobiographical details
    • Source information for the news of the event
    • Detailed contextual information

Where you were, what you were doing, who you talked to, what your emotional response was, etc.

  • Are flashbulb memories special?
  • Do they include errors seen in other memories?
  • Are they subject to forgetting like other memories?

Claudia J. Stanny

eyewitness memory
Eyewitness Memory
  • Estimator Variables
    • Characteristics of the witness or witnessed event known to have an influence on accuracy of witness recollections
  • System Variables
    • Characteristics of the legal / investigative process known to have an influence on accuracy of witness recollections
  • Variables that produce memory distortions
    • Misleading questioning
    • Post-Information effects

Claudia J. Stanny

factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness memory
Factors that influence the accuracy of eyewitness memory
  • Delays between the event and recall
  • Intrusions related to misinformation
  • Reconstructive nature of memory

Schema-based intrusions

  • Social pressure

Demand characteristics of questioning the encourage production of more information or a specific answer

  • Positive feedback following identifications during lineups increases confidence without increasing accuracy

Claudia J. Stanny