long term memory
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Long-Term Memory

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 53

Long-Term Memory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 283 Views
  • Uploaded on

Long-Term Memory. Introduction STM versus LTM Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Procedural Memory Encoding in Long-Term Memory Depth of Processing (or Levels of Processing) Self Reference Effect Encoding Specificity Principle Emotions, Moods, and Memory. Long-Term Memory 2.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Long-Term Memory' - davin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
long term memory
Long-Term Memory
  • Introduction
    • STM versus LTM
    • Episodic Memory
    • Semantic Memory
    • Procedural Memory
  • Encoding in Long-Term Memory
    • Depth of Processing (or Levels of Processing)
    • Self Reference Effect
    • Encoding Specificity Principle
    • Emotions, Moods, and Memory
long term memory 2
Long-Term Memory 2
  • Retrieval in Long-Term Memory
    • Explicit versus Implicit Memory
    • Very Long-Term Memory
    • Expertise
    • Amnesia
  • Autobiographical Memory
    • Flashbulb Memories
    • Schemas & Autobiographical Memory
    • Source Monitoring
    • Eyewitness Testimony
tulving s memory model
Tulving’s Memory Model
  • Episodic
  • Semantic
  • Procedural
encoding in ltm
Encoding in LTM
  • Levels (depth) of processing
  • Self-Reference Effect
  • Encoding Specificity Principle
  • Emotion and Memory
    • Mood and Memory
levels of processing framework
Levels of Processing Framework
  • Craik & Lockhart (1972)
  • Type of Processing
    • Physical Processing > shallow
    • Meaningful Processing > deep
  • Trace byproduct of processing
  • Deeper processing leads to more durable traces
research on lop and similar themes
Research on LOP and Similar Themes
  • Tulving (1975)
  • Generation Effect (1978)
    • e.g. light d_ _ k (generation)

vs.

light dark (read)

  • Faces - e.g. Sporer (1991)
explanations
Explanations
  • Distinctiveness
  • Elaboration
self reference effect
Self-Reference Effect
  • Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker (1997)
  • Process list of words:
    • Physical characteristics
    • Acoustic characteristics
    • Semantic characteristics
    • Self - (reference)
  • Robust effect
  • Symons & Johnson (1997)
    • Meta-analysis
  • Explanations
revisions to lop
Revisions to LOP
  • Moscovitch & Craik (1975)

-Encoding Specificity Principle

  • Bransford & Franks

- Transfer Appropriate Processing

effects of context
Effects of Context
  • Geiselman & Glenny (1977)
  • Outshining hypothesis
effects of context1
Effects of Context
  • Baddeley - scuba diving
  • Remembering names - faces as contextual cues
  • Practical Application - imaginary reinstatement
geiselman glenny 1997

Geiselman & Glenny (1997)

Encoding

(Imagined)

female voice

male voice

Test (Actual

Speaker)

male

female

male

female

mood memory
Mood & Memory
  • Memory for items differing in emotion
  • Pollyanna Principle
  • Mood Congruence

- individual differences studies

- experimental manipulation of moods

  • Mood-State Dependence

- Claudia Ucros (1989)

- meta-analysis

- other variables

study each of the words that appear
Study each of the words that appear

Picture

Commerce

Motion

Village

Vessel

Window

Number

Reindeer

Custom

Fellow

Advice

Dozen

Flower

Kitchen

Bookstore

implicit memory measures
Implicit Memory Measures

Picture, Commerce, Motion, Village,Vessel,Window, Number, Reindeer, Custom, Fellow, Advice, Dozen, Flower, Kitchen, Bookstore

explicit vs implicit measures of memory
Explicit vs Implicit Measures of Memory
  • Explicit memory measures:
    • recall
    • recognition
  • Implicit memory measures:
    • Word fragment completion
    • Stem completion
    • Repetition priming
  • Role of conscious, deliberate recollection
the critical distinction
The Critical Distinction
  • Explicit memory tasks require conscious, deliberate recollection of previous experiences
  • Implicit memory tasks do not require conscious recollection of previous events

e.g., b_ _ k

research with amnesics
Research with Amnesics
  • Warrington & Weiskrantz (1970)
  • Tasks

explicit - recognition, recall

implicit - mutilated word guessing

- stem completion

e.g. st_ _ _

  • Replicated
  • Dissociation
dissociation
Dissociation
  • A variable has an effect on one type of test, but little or no effect on another type of test
  • A variable has one type of effect if measured by Test A, but a different effect if measured by Test B
research with normal adults
Research with Normal Adults
  • Levels of processing and the

implicit / explicit distincion

  • Picture Superiority Effect
  • Current Status

- explanations

- applications

levels of processing explicit implict tests
truck

Levels of Processing: Explicit/Implict Tests

Semantic

(pleasant vs unpleasant)

Physical, perceptual

Task (# syllables or

Upper/lower case?)

Explicit

Memory Test

Higher recall,

recognition *

___

Implicit

Memory Test

(e.g. t_u_k)

___

Higher--or at least equal performance*

picture superiority effect
Picture Superiority Effect
  • Subjects view a series of pictures or a series of words
  • Subjects recall stimuli by writing down names of items -- recall of pictures is higher than recall of words.

Elephant

versus.

explanations1
Explanations
  • No agreed-upon explanation
  • Context & encoding specificity
  • Multiple memory systems
    • e.g. Tulving
  • Neuroscience account
expertise
Expertise
  • Influence on LTM
  • Definition - consistent superior performance

- deliberate practice

- at least 10 years

  • Domain specific
  • 10-year rule
context specific nature of expertise
Context-Specific Nature of Expertise
  • Skilled memory effect
  • Chess

-De Groot

-Chase & Simon (1973):

5 second task

typical vs. random positions

  • Similar effects in many domains:

-basketball

-x-rays

-circuit diagrams, etc.

  • SF (digits only)
an expert waiter jc
An Expert Waiter - JC
  • Ericsson (1985)
  • J.C. - 20 tops
  • Comparison of J.C. to college students
  • Critical difference = memory strategies and knowledge
  • Follow-up study (Crutcher, Ericsson, & Bauder)
autobiographical memory
Autobiographical Memory
  • Memory for events and issues related to yourself
  • Naturally occurring events
  • Rapidly growing interest
  • Wide variety of topics
  • High ecological validity
topics
Topics
  • Flashbulb Memories
    • Brown & Kulik (1977)
    • High level of surprise
    • High level of emotional arousal
    • Recent Research (Weaver, 1993)
  • Schemas & Autobiographical Memory
    • Generalized, abstract knowledge structures
    • Memory for common, ordinary events
    • Variable instantiation
    • False memories
    • Consistency bias
    • Repisodic Memory
topics1
Topics
  • Source Monitoring
    • Origin of a memory
    • Actual versus imagined action
    • Marsh & Colleagues (1997)
    • Henkel & Colleagues (2000)
eyewitness testimony
Eyewitness Testimony
  • The ‘gentleman bandit’ (1979)
  • Identifying faces
    • Recognition accuracy
      • Time and attention
      • Reintz, et al. (1994, p 45)
    • Length of retention interval
    • Intervening info
  • Misleading post-event info
misinformation effect
Misinformation Effect
  • Caused by misleading information given after viewing an earlier event
  • RI = retroactive inhibition or interference
  • Classic experiment - Loftus (1978)
ad