earth and mineral resources unit 2 section b
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Earth and Mineral Resources Unit 2 Section B

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Earth and Mineral Resources Unit 2 Section B. Renewable and nonrenewable resources. Renewable resources Can be replenished over relatively short time spans Examples include Plants Animals for food Trees for lumber. Renewable and nonrenewable resources. Nonrenewable resources

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renewable and nonrenewable resources
Renewable and nonrenewable resources
  • Renewable resources
      • Can be replenished over relatively short time spans
      • Examples include
        • Plants
        • Animals for food
        • Trees for lumber
renewable and nonrenewable resources1
Renewable and nonrenewable resources
  • Nonrenewable resources
      • Significant deposits take millions of years to form
      • Examples
        • Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
        • Metals (iron, copper, uranium, gold)
  • Some resources, such as groundwater, can go in either category depending on how they are used
mineral resources
Mineral resources
  • The endowment of useful minerals ultimately available commercially
      • Mineral resources include
        • Reserves – already identified deposits from which minerals can be extracted profitably
        • As well as known deposits that are not economically or technologically recoverable
mineral resources1
Mineral resources
  • Mineral resources
      • Ore – refers to useful metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit and in common usage to some nonmetallic minerals such as fluorite and sulfur
      • To be considered of value, an element must be concentrated above the level of its average crustal abundance
mineral resources2
Mineral Resources
  • Earth has 92 natural elements
  • About 99% of the Earth’s crust is comprised of only 8 of these…
    • Oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium
mineral resources4
These 8 common elements combine with 1000’s of rare elements to form +/- 3,000 different minerals

The key here, however, is this:

Each mineral is potentially a resource, if people find a use for it.

Mineral Resources
mineral resources5
Mineral Resources
  • Minerals are valued primarily for their mechanical or chemical properties
    • As technologies evolve, so too do the related values of mineral resources
mineral resources6
Mineral Resources
  • As with energy resources, mineral resources are NOT uniformly distributed around the world…
mineral resources7
Mineral Resources
  • Minerals are either metallic or nonmetallic
  • Weight-wise, 90% of minerals that humans use are nonmetallic!!
metallic minerals
Metallic Minerals
  • Metallic minerals:
    • Contain properties that are valuable for making
      • machinery, vehicles, weapons, and other essential elements of an industrialized society…
metallic minerals1
Metallic Minerals
  • Ferrous (metals) - IRON
    • Refers to iron ore and other alloys used in the production of iron and steel
  • Nonferrous (metals) - ALUMINUM
    • Used to make products other than iron and steel
Why is iron such a valuable resource?

Good conductor of both heat and electricity

Attracted by a magnet and able to be magnetized

Malleable into all sorts of useful shapes

important ferrous metals
Abundant Supply






Limited Supply


100 years


50 years


China – 90% production, 50% reserves

Important Ferrous Metals
Why is aluminum such a valuable resource?

Light and Strong


Resistant to corrosion

Huge supply

As well as being malleable, ductile, and a decent conductor…

important nonferrous metals

60 years supply


25 years…


45 years…



Prized for beauty and durability

Not just jewelry


S. Africa – 90% reserves

Important Nonferrous Metals