Absolutist France vs. Ottoman Empire - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Absolutist France vs. Ottoman Empire

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  1. Absolutist France vs. Ottoman Empire European monarchy compared with a land-based Asian empire

  2. Bourbon monarchs come to power in 1500’s with Henry IV End of civil wars over religion and absolutism Nation-state Expansion by Louis XIV to ‘”natural boundaries” Expansion overseas to Americas and India trading posts Turkic tribe from steppes of Central Asia Conquest state—took Constantinople in 1453 Moved into Balkans Moved into North Africa Navy almost complete superiority in the Mediterranean until end of 1500’s Coming to Power

  3. Centralized state with absolute monarch (political, religious and military leader Control over hereditary monarchs Bureaucracy of middle class and nobles of the robe Powerful and capable chief ministers Intendent system Tax farming Mercantilism Louis XIV (1600’s to early 1700’s) Sultan, absolute monarch (political, religious and military leader) Warrior aristocracy-granted land to be used to support themselves and family (land belonged emperor) Janissaries—”slave” soldiers and administrators Islamic scholars and legal experts in bureaucracy Vizier—chief minister handled day to day administration Divan-imperial council Suleiman the Magnificent Government

  4. Versailles 1000’s of courtiers and their attendants No problems of succession Topkapi Harem Problems of succession Palace

  5. France Agriculture Vigorous trade and pro-industrialism Encouraged by state which adopted mercantilism Dependent on overseas colonies San Dominique, Canada Tax farming Goods from Americas like coffee, tobacco, chocolate Ottoman Empire Agriculture Vigorous trade, but held in low esteem by Ottoman elite so in hands of Jews, Christians, foreigners Capitulations Tax farming Began to collect taxes on trade—European merchants went around Goods from America like coffee and tobacco Economics

  6. France Versailles Clothing, furniture, dances, food, etc. Ballet Opera Plays –Racine and Moliere French Academies-science and the arts Ottoman Sultan trained in a craft Construction of monumental architecture- Suleymaniye mosque Isnik tiles-synthesis of Chinese and European motifs—painted floral designs Textiles, silver, bookbinding,calligraphy, carpets Culture

  7. France only had to deal with them in colonies, France at home nation state Appointed governors to collect tax revenues, oversee justice and economic activities Slave labor Prohibited Protestants from settling in New France Lost Canada and Indian outpost to English in 7 years war Ottomans have many ethnic and religious minorities Millet system—tolerated them, but special administration and tax system Expansion brought wealth to empire Later provinces became autonomous like Egypt Problems in the Balkans, Greek independence in 1820’s Europeans and capitulations—let revenue and trade get out of their hands Dealing with ethnic minorities

  8. France Powerful army of 400,000 Expense and losses in later years—war of Spanish succession Policies towards Huguenots Constant drain on treasury Losses overseas to British Ottoman—remember over 600 years in empire At its height, too large to effectively rule Losses meant not enough revenue for army and bureaucracy Many local officials become autonomous Decline in quality of sultans (sons are no longer trained in provinces), growing harem intrigue Resistance of Janisaries to reforms Europeans bypass empire in favor of overseas trade Inflation from influx of American silver, poor balance of trade Weaknesses

  9. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE ARTSBETWEEN 1450 AND 1750

  10. Chief purpose of French art was to glorify the king.

  11. Ming China-Blue and White Porcelain

  12. Banraku • BunrakuA professional puppet theater which developed in Japan during the Edo period. A versatile chanter provided voices for all the puppets, with musical accompaniment provided by a shamisen. The puppet—approximately half to two-thirds life-size—was operated by three puppeteers. The principal operator supported the puppet with his left arm and hand, and controlled movable eyelids, eyeballs and mouth with his right hand. The first assistant operated the puppet's left arm while the second assistant manipulated the puppet's legs.

  13. Turkish Isnik Tiles

  14. Safavid Tile and Rug

  15. Mughal Art: Blend of Persian and Indian (Hindu)

  16. Russian Architecture: St. Basil Cathedral (onion dome)