American Indians USI.3
Lesson 1 Archaeologists
SOL USI.3a: Describing how archaeologists have recovered material evidence of ancient settlements including Cactus Hill
Archaeologists study human behavior and culture through the recovery and analysis of artifacts.
Scientists are not in agreement as to when and how people entered the Western Hemisphere.
Evidence that humans lived at Cactus Hill as early as 15,000 years ago makes it one of the oldest sites in North America.
Samples of pre-Clovis stone tools from the lowest (oldest) level of the Cactus Hill Site.
Lesson 2 Location of American Indians
SOL USI.3a: locate where the American Indians lived.
Essential Question How do people use the physical environment to meet their basic needs?
Geographic Features • Geographic features like the land, rivers, and climate influence where humans settled.
What Do I Need To Know? The physical features of a region such as climate and natural resources affect how humans meet their basic needs.
Anticipation Guide (HOOK) • 1. How did people get to North America from Asia and why did they come? • Where did they settle? • How did they determine what they would use for shelter and clothing? • What types of homes did they live in? • What did they wear? • How did they adapt (adjust) to their surroundings?
Early Migration How did the First Americans get here? • Ice Age • Bering Strait • Land Bridge
Bering Strait Bering evolution
American Indians Prior to the arrival of Europeans, American Indians were dispersed across different environments in North America.
USI.3A – GROUPS & LOCATION OF EACH KWAKIUTL “Indian” (1)
Inuit • Inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada • Lived in Arctic areas (below freezing much of the year)
Inuit • Dress warm • The walrus, seal, and other fur-bearing sea mammals supply food and clothing. Caribou was hunted in the summer. Lived in igloos.
THE INUIT(Eskimo – “eaters of raw meat”) Homes were Igloos, made of ice blocks Lived in Alaska & Northern Canada Ate reindeer & sea animals Wore furs and feathers
Kwakiutl • Pacific Northwest coast • Rainy mild climate • Fishing and hunting (could catch enough fish during the summer for the whole winter).
Kwakiutl • Plank Houses with totem poles
THE KWAKIUTL Lived in WA, OR, & Northern CA Lived in plank houses Wore plants, animal skin, natural fibers, etc. Ate fish and water fowl
Sioux/Lakota • Interior of the United States (Great Plains) • Dry grasslands • Lived in tepees
The plains area was hotter than 100° in the summer and could get to 40° below zero in the winter. • Horses • Hunted buffalo
THE SIOUX/LAKOTA Lived in tepees Lived on the Great Plains Ate buffalo meat Wore hides, etc.
Pueblo • The Pueblo were in the Southwest • Present-day New Mexico and Arizona. • Desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.
Pueblo • Homes made out of sand and adobe. They were farmers.
THE PUEBLO Anasazi? Ate “3 sisters”: corn, beans, & squash Lived in adobe houses or cliff dwellings 4 Corners Region of US Also ate rabbits & deer
Iroquois • Northeast North America • Eastern Woodland • Heavily forested • Farmers who lived in longhouses or wigwams.
THE IROQUOIS Eastern Woodlands Indians Ate beans, corn, & squash Lived in “Longhouses”