The Rise of Dictators and World War II Main Idea – The rise of dictators in Europe and Asia helped lead to World War II. .
The Great Depression had ruined economies in Europe. Many Europeans turned to new leaders to solve their problems. • Who were the dictators that came to power in Europe?
Totalitarian • Expected active loyalty and commitment • control of political, economic, social and cultural aspects of life • led by a single leader and party • not interested in individual freedom (civil liberties) • used modern technology and propaganda
Who were these dictators? -Adolf Hitler, Germany -Josef Stalin, U.S.S.R. -Benito Mussolini, Italy -Francisco Franco, Spain -Tojo and Other Militarists, Japan
What made them dictators? -Authoritarian Rule -Nationalism -Expansion -Totalitarian Government
What made them different? -Communism -Fascism -Nazism -Japanese Militarists
Why did people support dictators? - Success of authoritarians - Weakness of democracies - Pride of nationalism - Promise of growth - Rise in power during a time of decline -For some fascism was a defense against Communism
What’s the harm? - The trains ran on time - They beat the Depression - The Five Year Plans succeeded - These nations had real needs to fill - They inspired their people
What’s the harm? - Jewish persecution - Racial oppression - Brutal police states - Attack on Ethiopia - Invasion of Manchuria - Seizure of the Rhineland and the Sudetenland
Why did the other nations of the world stand by? - Fear of another Great War - U.S. was bound to Neutrality - Lack of preparation - Was this the war people were expecting?
Who am I? • Adolf Hitler • Germany – Adolf Hitler – leader of the fascist National Socialist German Workers’ Party – or Nazi Party.
Hitler used his image as a father figure • Hitler extinguished dissent • Hitler used an organized program to keep his kids occupied • Pope of Rome, Joseph Ratzinger, was also kept busy as a boy as a part of this same "Hitler Youth".)
Hitler gathered the children into frequent rallies • Hitler used uniforms • Hitler used the Jews as a focus of blame • Hitler used a propaganda program • Hitler installed "spies" within these ranks of children
Adolph Hitler 1889-1945Der Fuhrer • born in Austria-early life in Vienna • core of beliefs- anti-Semitic • wrote “Mein Kampf” in jail in 20’s • built Nazi party on dissatisfaction • won over elite and establishment • fear of communists- largest party • became chancellor • Reichtag burned-emergency powers
European • Italy – Benito Mussolini – began a political movement – fascism – an extreme form of nationalism and racism.
Mussolini • Preached a government called Fascism – includes intense patriotism & nationalism • Very much linked to racism and cultural superiority
Benito Mussolini 1883-1945Il Duce • First Fascist Dictator • Italy- in political and economic crisis • had support of middle class seeking stability • 1922- march on Rome- Victor Emmanuel made him PM • Could legislate by decree, police state • Created Young Fascists- Never really in control of all culture/society
Fascism vs Nazism • Fascism (fascio) “union of bundle”: State is the most important element • Nazism (National Socialism): emphasis on racism “Aryanism”
Fascism vs Communism • Communism stands for a stateless society where all is equal • Fascism: pertains to state and it considers state on top of everything: radical authoritarian nationalism
Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator took over upon the death of Vladimir Lenin (led the Communist takeover of Russia in 1917.) His government tried to control every aspect of life in the nation.
Joseph Stalin and the USSRCommunist State • Similar to Total state • oppression of the masses • ownership of production and land by the state • forced rapid industrialization ,cruel • purges- wondered who was in power
Who am I? • Emperor • Hirohito • Japan General Hideki Tojo Prime Minister Totalitarian State
JAPAN • Japan – The military was gaining more and more power with army General Hideki Tojo having more power than the Emperor Hirohito.
Who am I? • Francisco Franco • Spain • Fascist who overthrows the democratic government in Spanish Civil War
Who am I? • Winston Churchill • Great Britain
Who am I? • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • United States
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Japan • Military leaders took control of gov’t • Invaded Manchuria • Tried to expand in the Pacific • Joined the Axis Powers in 1940
1931 – Japan attacks Manchuria in northern China Japan wants more natural resources for its growing population (Manchuria is rich in natural resources)
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Italy • Mussolini seized control of the gov’t and the military and formed a fascist state • Italy formed alliance with Germany called the Axis Powers • Invaded Ethiopia in 1936 • Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war
Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935 Emperor Haile Selassie
Countries That Threatened World Peace • Germany • Dictator and fascist Adolph Hitler took control in 1934 • created a totalitarian state • built up Germany’s army
Germany Begins Conquests 1936 – Hitler moves troops into the Rhineland (German region near the French border) WWI treaty said no German troops here French Gov’t and League of Nations – TAKE NO ACTION
Hitler begins his own Conquests 1938 – Hitler and the Germans invade Austria (most Austrians spoke German and welcomed becoming a part of Germany) But…Hitler and the Germans were expanding – and the WWI treaty told them not to…
The Sudetenland After taking Austria – Hitler wants more His next desire is the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia The Czechs didn’t want to give this area to Germany – nor did France and Russia
“Appeasement” at Munich • The British step in to offer a peace and avoid war • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler in Munich, Germany • They agree to give Hitler the Sudetenland • Hitler has to promise he is done seeking territory
Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister who came up with the agreement, said that he had achieved “peace in our time” Winston Churchill, the future Prime Minister, said: “Britain and France had to choose between war and shame. They chose shame. They will get war, too.” Reactions to Munich
Hitler breaks his promise: Germany Starts the War • After being given Sudetenland – Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia • Hitler signs a Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin and the Soviet Union (they agree to not make war on each other) – now France and Britain have lost an ally • Immediately after – Germany invades Poland (France & Britain declare war on Germany) WWII officially begins
The Nazi-SovietNon-Aggression Pact, 1939 Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov
Germany and Russia started secret talks while Germany was negotiating with Great Britain and France. • Terms of Non Aggression pact: • Will not attack each other • Will remain neutral if either is attacked
What was not announced to the world: Hitler and Stalin agreed to divide parts of Eastern Europe Germany – Western Poland Soviets - Eastern Poland, Baltic countries
German Aggression! Lightning War - Hitler invades Poland
WorldWar II • CAUSES (Long Term) • WWI (the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles) • Dictators come to power in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union • Severe economic problems exist in Europe and Asia. • Italy, Germany, and Japan expand their territory. • The policy of appeasement fails.