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The Rock Cycle. The Rock Cycle. Igneous Rocks – cooled magma or lava Sedimentary Rocks – pieces of other rocks or from minerals dissolved in water Metamorphic Rocks – heat and pressure; not completely melted, but are re-shaped while soft.

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the rock cycle1
The Rock Cycle

Igneous Rocks – cooled magma or lava

Sedimentary Rocks – pieces of other rocks or from minerals dissolved in water

Metamorphic Rocks – heat and pressure; not completely melted, but are re-shaped while soft.

slide4

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Clastic Sedimentary RocksA. Pieces of rocks carried by an agent of erosion 1. Water 2. Wind 3. Ice 4. GravityB. Sequence of rock formation 1. Weathering 2. Erosion/transport 3. Deposition 4. Burial & Lithification

erosion and transport

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Erosion and Transport

Deposition

  • Deposition occurs when sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottoms of bodies of water.
  • Sediments are deposited when transport stops.
  • As water or wind slows down, the largest particles settle out first, then the next-largest, and so on, so that different-sized particles are sorted into layers.
  • Since wind can move only small grains, sand dunes are commonly made of fine, well-sorted sand.
  • Sediment deposits from glaciers and landslides are not sorted because both move all materials with equal ease.
lithification

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Lithification
  • Lithification begins as the weight of overlying sediments forces the sediment grains closer together, causing the physical changes.
  • Layers of mud shrink as excess water is squeezed out.
lithification1

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Lithification
  • Sand resists additional compaction during burial.
  • Grain-to-grain contacts in sand form a supporting framework that helps maintain open spaces between the grains.
lithification2

Formation of Sedimentary Rocks

Lithification
  • Cementation occurs when minerals grow & cement sediment grains together into solid rock.
  • A new mineral, such as calcite (CaCO3) or iron oxide (Fe2O3) grows between sediment grains as dissolved minerals precipitate out of groundwater.
  • Existing mineral grains grow larger as more of the same mineral precipitates from groundwater and crystallizes around them.
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C. Features of Sedimentary Rocks 1. Bedding (Layers) a. Graded; sorted by size b. Unsorted; mixed sizes Deposited by wind or ice 2. Fossils-sed. rocks are the only type with fossils

slide10

II. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks – usually evaporites, like Halite (rock salt)III. Organic Sedimentary Rocks – once living material. Examples:coaland limestone.IV. Types of Metamorphism A. Hydrothermal; hot water B. Contact; touching magma C. Regional; Plate Tectonics

iii many m etamorphic rocks are foliated this means that they have flattened crystals

Metamorphic Rocks

III. Many metamorphic rocks are foliated. This means that they have flattened crystals.
  • Foliated metamorphic rocks are characterized by wavy layers and bands of minerals.
other possible paths

Metamorphic Rocks

Other Possible Paths
  • There is more than one path in the rock cycle.
  • The rocks of Earth’s crust are constantly being recycled from one type to another.
  • The processes that help shape Earth’s landscapes are also part of the rock cycle.