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Building Vocabulary from Word Roots

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  1. Building Vocabulary from Word Roots Lesson 2 Latin Prefixes dis-, di-, dif-

  2. dis-, di-, dif- The Latin prefixes dis-, di-, and dif- have two different meanings. In a directional sense, they can mean “apart” or “in different directions.” In a negative sense, they can mean “not.”

  3. dis-, di-, dif-“apart, in different directions, not” dis- + semin (seed) + ate (to make or do) = disseminate (“to make” (or send) a “seed” “different directions”) –to spread information di- + vert (“turn”) + ity (“state or condition”)= diversity (the “state of” being “turned” in “different directions”) –to be made up of different things or groups dif- + fid (“trust”) + ent (“existing condition”) = diffident (“trust” is “apart” from) -not trusting in oneself or others; shy

  4. dis-, di-, dif-“apart, in different directions, not” dis- + tort (“twist”) = distort (to “twist” in “different directions”) -either literally or as in to twist the truth di- + fus (“pour”) = diffuse (“to pour” “in different directions” or “apart”) -to literally pour or spread out; to diffuse an argument, one might “pour” the negativity “apart” by offering positive comments

  5. dis-, di-, dif-“apart, in different directions, not” When you encounter dis-, di-, dif-words that you do not know, you will need to try out each prefix meaning to determine which one makes the most sense. di- + sper (“to scatter) = disperse- to send “in different directions” dis- + sect (“cut”) = dissect- to cut “apart” In most cases, “not” words beginning with dis- contain an easily recognizable word after the prefix. disconnected = not connected disjointed = not jointed, or poorly joined together disparity = lack of parity (which means inequality) disarray = lack of array (not well-arranged; messy) disinterested = not interested

  6. How do these dis-, di-, dif- words mean “apart,” “in different directions,” or “not”? • The students enjoyed the teacher’s digressions from the topic. • Our attention was diverted by the loud music. • The narrator dismembered the corpse and hid it beneath the floorboards! • Sometimes people distort the truth. • The talk was disjointed and hard to follow. • His clothes were in a state of disarray.

  7. Do Now! Copy these phrases down on a piece of notebook paper, skipping lines in between. • A diffident attitude • To disseminate a message • To create a diversion • To divulge a secret • To dissect a specimen • A disparity of resources • A room that is in disarray • To distort a story

  8. Divide and Conquer Dis-= “apart,” “in different directions,” or “not” tract = “pull, draw, drag” Distract means to “draw” something or someone “in a different direction.” • diverse: turned “in different directions” –or when things or people are different • disconnected: “not” connected

  9. Test Prep Greek and Latin RootsUse the definitions of the bases to determine the meaning of the bolded word. Begin by filling in the correct base definitions on the lines following the bases. The prefixes dis-, di-, and dif- can mean _________________, ____________________________, and _____________. Out of the nine Supreme Court justices, not one offered a final dissenting opinion on the landmark Brown versus the Board of Education case that overturned the “Separate but Equal” clause that had previously held that segregation of the races was constitutional. Justice Warren successfully argued that the continued separation of whites and blacks would mean that the black race is inherently inferior and any laws that upheld that were unconstitutional. (The base sent means to “think or feel;” –ing makes a word present tense). Define the word dissenting-__________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

  10. Test Prep Greek and Latin RootsUse the definitions of the bases to determine the meaning of the bolded word. Begin by filling in the correct base definitions on the lines following the bases. The prefixes dis-, di-, and dif- can mean _________________, ____________________________, and _____________. Out of the nine Supreme Court justices, not one offered a final dissenting opinion on the landmark Brown versus the Board of Education case that overturned the “Separate but Equal” clause that had previously held that segregation of the races was constitutional. Justice Warren successfully argued that the continued separation of whites and blacks would mean that the black race is inherently inferior and any laws that upheld that were unconstitutional. (The base sent means to “think or feel;” –ing makes a word present tense). Define the word dissenting none of the judges “thought or felt” “in a different direction” than the others; none of the judges disagreed about the ruling on the case.

  11. Test Prep Greek and Latin RootsUse the definitions of the bases to determine the meaning of the bolded word. Begin by filling in the correct base definitions on the lines following the bases. People often mistake common diffidence for an unwillingness to chat and get to know other people and therefor gain a false belief of your character. (The base fid means “trust” and -ence means “existing condition.”) Define the word diffident_____________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

  12. Test Prep Greek and Latin RootsUse the definitions of the bases to determine the meaning of the bolded word. Begin by filling in the correct base definitions on the lines following the bases. People often mistake common diffidence for an unwillingness to chat and get to know other people and therefor gain a false belief of your character. (The base fid means “trust” and -ence means “existing condition.”) Define the word diffident-someone who is “not” “existing” with “trust” in themselves or others; shy people often avoid chatting