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Shaping

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  1. Shaping Chapter 8

  2. Simple Reinforcement Before: Andrew has no gum Behavior Initial: Andrew moves his lips After: Andrew receives gum

  3. Differential Reinforcement Reinforcement Behavior Intermed: Andrew makes croaking sound After: Andrew receives gum Before: Andrew has no gum Behavior Intermed: Andrew moves his lips After: Andrew receives no gum Extinction

  4. Differential Reinforcement Reinforcement Behavior Terminal: Andrew says “gum” After: Andrew receives gum Before: Andrew has no gum Behavior Intermed: Andrew makes croaking sound After: Andrew receives no gum Extinction

  5. Process of Shaping • Used when the response is not currently in the repertoire • Is used as an intervention • We don’t shape people, we shape responses

  6. Operant Level • The frequency of responding before reinforcement

  7. Terminal Behavior • Behavior not in the repertoire or not occurring at the desired rate; • This is the goal of the intervention

  8. Shaping Behaviors • Initial behaviors • Intermediate behaviors

  9. Initial behavior • Behavior that resembles the terminal behavior along some meaningful dimension and occurs with at least a minimal frequency

  10. Intermediate behaviors • Behavior that more closely approximates the terminal behavior

  11. The procedure of shaping with reinforcement • The differential reinforcement of only that behavior that more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior

  12. Shaping with Reinforcement Reinforcement Behavior Initial: Andrew moves lips Intermed: Andrew makes croaking sound Terminal: Says words clearly After: Andrew receives gum Before: Andrew has no gum Behavior Initial: NA Intermed: Moves lips only Terminal: Says words unclearly After: Andrew receives no gum Extinction

  13. Differential Reinforcement vs. Shaping

  14. Differential Reinforcement vs. Shaping – fill in the table

  15. Shaping with punishment • The differential punishment of all behavior except that which more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior

  16. Variable-outcome shaping • Shaping that involves an increase in the magnitude of a reinforcer or a decrease in the magnitude of an aversive outcome as performance more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior

  17. Variable Outcome Shaping Quicker Reinforcement Behavior Initial: forceful Intermed: very forceful Terminal: superforceful After Initital: Rattle in 10-sec Intermediate: Rattle in 6s Terminal: Rattle in 4s Before: Rod has no rattle in his hand Behavior Initial: weak force Intermed: forceful Terminal: very forceful After Initial: no rattle Intermed: Rattle in 10s Terminal: Rattle in 6 sec Slower Reinforcement

  18. Fixed outcome shaping • Shaping that involves the delivery of a fixed magnitude of a reinforcer, when performance meets the changing criterion, • or the delivery of a fixed magnitude of an aversive outcome, when performance fails to meet the changing criterion.

  19. Fixed Outcome vs. Variable Outcome Shaping

  20. R1 R5 R2 R6 SR SR A B R3 R7 R4 R8 Operant Classes Differential Reinforcement

  21. Shaping • “Creates” new behavior (creates classes) • adds responses to an individual’s repertoire • Differential reinforcement of successive approximations

  22. Shaping • Artificial (i.e., deliberate)

  23. Deliberate Shaping • Select a final target behavior • Measure current distribution (baseline) • Differentially reinforce an approx. • Diff. reinf. new approx. • Place previous approx. on EXT • Continue until target behavior occurs

  24. Eckerman et al. (1980) • Interested in developing principles of shaping • Two questions • Step Size? • How fast (i.e., step rate)?

  25. Eckerman et al. (1980)

  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Nominal Operant Class Induction (Response Generalization) Functional Operant Class

  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Large Steps

  37. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Large Steps

  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Large Steps

  39. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Large Steps

  40. Eckerman et al. (1980)Independent Variables • Step Size = Change in distance each step • Step Rate = How long at each step

  41. Eckerman et al. (1980)Dependent Variable • Accuracy • Percentage of pecks at target locations

  42. Eckerman et al. (1980)Results • Accuracy was unaffected by step size or step rate • Just as accurate with large steps and a criterion that changes rapidly • Under these conditions, relatively large steps and relatively rapid change are best

  43. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  44. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  47. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  48. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small Steps

  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17 18 19 20 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 v v Small Steps