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Shaping. Chapter 19. Shaping. Systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior It’s a treatment and a natural process Typically used to teach behavior that is not yet occurring at all Example from Wolf, Risley, and Mees (1964): Wearing glasses.

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shaping

Shaping

Chapter 19

shaping1
Shaping
  • Systematically and differentially reinforcingsuccessive approximations to a terminal behavior
    • It’s a treatment and a natural process
    • Typically used to teach behavior that is not yet occurring at all
  • Example from Wolf, Risley, and Mees (1964): Wearing glasses

24

differential reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement
  • The process:
    • Reinforcement is provided for responses that have a certain predetermined quality AND
    • Reinforcement is withheld for responses that don’t have that quality (extinction)
  • The effects:
    • Responses similar to those that have been reinforced occur more frequently
    • Responses similar to those that have NOT been reinforced occur less frequently (extinction)
      • Extinction typically leads to new behavior

24

successive approximations
Successive Approximations
  • Begin shaping by reinforcing responses that…
    • Are similar or a prerequisite to the terminal behavior
    • And are already in the learner’s current repertoire
  • When the initially reinforced responses become more frequent…
    • Shift the criterion for reinforcement to responses that are a closer approximation of the terminal behavior

24

wolf et al 1964
Wolf et al. (1964)

Placing glasses in position

Putting glasses up to face

Putting glasses up to face

Picking up glasses

Picking up glasses

Picking up glasses

Touching glasses

Touching glasses

Touching glasses

Touching glasses

Beginning

24

End

wolf et al 19641
Wolf et al. (1964)

RESPONSE Step 1:Touch glasses Step 2:Pick up glasses Step 3: Put up to face Step 4: Place in position

SR+

“Put on your glasses”

No SR+

RESPONSE Step 1:N/A Step 2:Touch glasses Step 3: Pick up glasses Step 4: Put up to face

No SR+

(EXTINCTION)

advantages of behavioral shaping
Advantages of Behavioral Shaping
  • Positive procedure
  • Can be used to teach new behaviors especially those that cannot easily be leaned by physical cues or verbal prompts
  • Can be combined with other behavior change procedures such as chaining
disadvantages of behavioral shaping
Disadvantages of Behavioral Shaping
  • Time consuming
  • Progress is not always linear
    • The individual does not always proceed from from one behavior to the next in a continuous, uninterrupted flow
  • Clinical judgment is involved how rapidly to increase requirements and how much each requirement should be increased.
  • Often there are subtle changes in the behavior that are difficult to detect by an unskilled clinician
  • Very hard to get IOA on intermediate behaviors
increasing the efficiency of shaping
Increasing the Efficiency of Shaping
  • Use a prompt such as
    • Instruction
    • Physical guidance
    • Model
  • Give the person a rule
    • If you do x, you will get y

24

before deciding to use shaping
Before Deciding to Use Shaping
  • Estimate how long it will take to reach the terminal behavior
  • Can the person who will do the shaping be trained to do it well in the time available?
  • Would it be more efficient to simply target the terminal step?

24

shaping guidelines
Shaping Guidelines
  • Select the terminal behavior
    • Consider behavior that will continue to be reinforced in the natural environment
    • Define the behavior precisely
  • Determine the criterion for success at each step
  • Analyze the response class
    • Response class: Group of behaviors with the same function
    • Helps you identify the approximations that might be emitted in the shaping sequence
  • Identify the first behavior to reinforce
    • It should already occur sometimes
    • Should be a member of the targeted response class
  • Eliminate distractions
  • Proceed in gradual stages
  • Limit the number of approximations at each level
  • Continue to reinforce when the terminal behavior is achieved

24

questions
Questions
  • How are shaping and chaining alike? How are they different?
  • How are shaping and prompting alike? When do you use each?
  • What research design would you use when shaping a particular behavior over time?
chaining

Chaining

Chapter 20

24

behavior chain
Behavior Chain
  • A sequence of responses in which
    • the result of each response (except for the last) is:
      • a conditioned reinforcer for that response
      • an SD for the next response
    • the reinforcer for the last response maintains the reinforcing effectiveness of the conditioned reinforcers in the chain
putting on pants
Putting on Pants
  • Pick up pants at waistband facing forward
  • Sit down
  • Put feet through pant leg openings
  • Pull pants over ankles
  • Stand up
  • Pull pants up to waist
slide16

SR+: Pants are up

Step 5: Stand and pull pants up to waist

Step 4: Pull pants over ankles

SR+ / SD: Pants are over your ankles

Step 3: Put feet through leg openings

SR+ / SD: Your feet are through the leg openings

SR+ / SD: You’re sitting down holding pants

Step 2: Sit down

Step 1: Pick up pants at waistband facing forward

SR+ / SD: Pants are in your hand and facing forward

definitions
Definitions
  • Behavior chain
    • The result of the performance of a sequential series of behaviors
  • Chaining
    • The way in which these behaviors are linked together
  • E.g., ?
task analysis
Task Analysis
  • Before a chain is taught, each of its behaviors must be identified
    • Task Analysis: the process of breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors into smaller, teachable units
      • Also, the list of the steps
  • Observe, consult an expert, do it yourself!
  • Should be individualized and include mastery criteria for % correct over time and relevant behavioral dimensions (e.g., latency at each step)
practice
Practice
  • Work with someone else and write a task analysis for a skill
    • Actually go through the motions of the skill if you can!
  • After you write the steps, practice to make sure you didn’t skip any!
    • Modify as necessary
assessing mastery level
Assessing Mastery Level
  • Determine which components of the task analysis a person can already perform independently – 2 ways:
  • Single-Opportunity Method
    • No prompting or contrived reinforcement
    • Present the SD and record + or – on your task analysis data sheet
    • Stop the individual as soon as you score a -
    • Do this over several days or sessions
  • Multiple-Opportunity Method
    • Same as single, but you allow the individual to continue if a - occurs
3 types of chaining
3 Types of Chaining
  • Forward Chaining
    • Teach the first step of the task analysis
      • Reinforce this response
    • Next, teach the second step
      • Reinforce after the first AND second steps have occurred in succession
    • Each succeeding step requires the cumulative performance of all previous steps in the correct order
making the bed forward chain
Making the Bed: Forward Chain
  • Pull top sheet up as far as it will go.
  • Tug at both sides to smooth out the wrinkles.
  • Pull blanket up and smooth out the wrinkles.
  • Fold blanket and sheet back together.
  • Pull bed spread up and smooth out.
  • Fold bed spread back.
  • Put pillow on.
  • Bring bed spread up over pillow.
3 types of chaining1
3 Types of Chaining
  • Total Task Chaining
    • Variation of forward chaining
    • Learner receives training on every step in the task analysis during every session
    • Teacher prompts when necessary
    • Continue teaching until learner is independent will all steps
making the bed total task
Making the Bed: Total Task
  • Pull top sheet up as far as it will go.
  • Tug at both sides to smooth out the wrinkles.
  • Pull blanket up and smooth out the wrinkles.
  • Fold blanket and sheet back together.
  • Pull bed spread up and smooth out.
  • Fold bed spread back.
  • Put pillow on.
  • Bring bed spread up over pillow.
3 types of chaining2
3 Types of Chaining
  • Backward Chaining
    • Teach the last step of the task analysis
      • Reinforce this response
    • Next, teach the second to last step
      • Reinforce after the second to last AND last steps have occurred in succession
    • This sequence proceeds backward through the chain until all the steps in the task analysis have taught in reverse order and practice cumulatively
    • Advantage: learner comes in contact with the terminal reinforcer during every teaching session
    • Examples: pasting with Robby, teaching Bailey to blow a bubble
making the bed backward chain
Making the Bed: Backward Chain
  • Pull top sheet up as far as it will go.
  • Tug at both sides to smooth out the wrinkles.
  • Pull blanket up and smooth out the wrinkles.
  • Fold blanket and sheet back together.
  • Pull bed spread up and smooth out.
  • Fold bed spread back.
  • Put pillow on.
  • Bring bed spread up over pillow.