Rhyme: the repetition of terminal sounds in two or more words • End Rhyme: Most common type- rhyme occurs at the end of the line • There is a singer everyone has heard • Loud, a mid-summer and a mis-wood bird • Internal Rhyme: Rhyme occurs within the line of poetry • Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary • Slant Rhyme: Occurs when words include similar but not identical sounds • Bone and Moon • Consonance: Words that have similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds • Chitter and Chatter • Alliteration: Repetition of one initial sound, usually a consonant, in more than one word • The grey geese grazing • Assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds but are not rhyming words • all and awful
Rhyme Scheme • The pattern of end rhymes in a poem, represented by a different letter in the alphabet • Roses are red - a • Violets are blue - b • Sugar is sweet - c • And so are you - b
Form: Stanza Structure • Fixed Form: traditional verse and general rhyme • Free form: Follow no specific guidelines about rhyme, meter, or length • Blank Verse: a poem written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
Types of Poems • Narrative poem: tells a story • Ballad: Folk narrative poem intended for song • Lyric: Expresses a person’s thoughts or feelings • Sonnet: 14- line poem with a fixed rhyme scheme
Bell Ringer • What are the primary characteristics of a Transcendental poet?
Ralph Waldo Emerson • May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882 • Poet, Essayist, Lecturer • Considered the father of Transcendentalism • Focuses on and develops the ideas of individuality, freedom, and the ability of humankind to achieve anything • View of “nature” is philosophical
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow • February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882 • Poet and Educator • Known for his lyric style of poetry that frequently focused on stories of mythology and legend • Heavily influenced by European styles (writes for the masses rather than his individual self)
Sample Poetry Analysis Theme: Love The heart is broken with an unseen force- the poet has felt it • NOT with a club the heart is broken, Nor with a stone;A whip, so small you could not see it, I ’ve known • To lash the magic creatureTill it fell,Yet that whip’s name too nobleThan to tell • Magnanimous of bird By boy descried,To sing unto the stone Of which it died. ~Emily Dickinson The heart is a “magic creature” that falls from the lashings of the “whip” (harsh love). She does not want to name the lover. The “bird” (poet) caught sight of and sang generously to the “stone” (cold-hearted lover) that caused her heart to die (broke her heart).
Poetry Analysis • For each of the poems, identify the main idea- what is the poet trying to say through the poem? • What poetic devices are used in the poems (rhyme, meter, figurative language, form)? • Identify the type of poem for each of them.
Bell Ringer • What are the primary characteristics of Romantic poets?
Emily Dickinson • 10 Dec 1830- 15 May 1886 • Experimented with expression in order to free it from conventional restraints • Crafted a new type of identity for the first person. • Speakers are sharp-sighted observers who see the inescapable limitations of their societies along with their imaginable escapes. • Uses indirect language to express possible but not yet realized ideas
Because I Could Not Stop For Death • Because I could not stop for Death –He kindly stopped for me –The Carriage held but just Ourselves –And Immortality. • We slowly drove – He knew no hasteAnd I had put awayMy labor and my leisure too,For His Civility – • We passed the School, where Children stroveAt Recess – in the Ring –We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain –We passed the Setting Sun – • Or rather – He passed Us –The Dews drew quivering and Chill –For only Gossamer, my Gown –My Tippet – only Tulle – • We paused before a House that seemedA Swelling of the Ground –The Roof was scarcely visible –The Cornice – in the Ground – • Since then – 'tis Centuries – and yetFeels shorter than the DayI first surmised the Horses' HeadsWere toward Eternity –
I Heard a Fly Buzz- When I Died • I heard a Fly buzz - when I died –The Stillness in the RoomWas like the Stillness in the Air –Between the Heaves of Storm - • The Eyes around - had wrung them dry –And Breaths were gathering firmFor that last Onset - when the KingBe witnessed - in the Room - • I willed my Keepsakes - Signed awayWhat portion of me beAssignable - and then it wasThere interposed a Fly - • With Blue - uncertain - stumbling Buzz –Between the light - and me –And then the Windows failed - and thenI could not see to see -
There’s a Certain Slant of Light • There's a certain Slant of light,Winter Afternoons –That oppresses, like the HeftOf Cathedral Tunes – • Heavenly Hurt, it gives us –We can find no scar,But internal difference –Where the Meanings, are – • None may teach it – Any –'Tis the seal Despair –An imperial afflictionSent us of the Air – • When it comes, the Landscape listens –Shadows – hold their breath –When it goes, 'tis like the DistanceOn the look of Death –
Water is Taught By Thirst • Water, is taught by thirst. Land—by the Oceans passed. Transport—by throe— Peace—by its battles told— Love, by Memorial Mold— Birds, by the Snow.
Bell Ringer • Identify one characteristic of Dickinson’s poems that aligns with the Romantic period.
Walt Whitman • 31 May 1819- 26 March 1892 • Considered one of America’s most influential poets • Aimed to exceed traditional classic ideas and avoid “normal” artistic form • Works reflect the nature of the American experience and democracy
When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer • When I heard the learn’d astronomer, When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me, When I was shown the charts and diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them, When I sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured with much applause in the lecture-room, How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick, Till rising and gliding out I wander’d off by myself, In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time, Look’dup in perfect silence at the stars
By the Bivouac’s Fitful Flame • By the bivouac's fitful flame,A procession winding around me, solemn and sweet and slow--but first I note, The tents of the sleeping army, the fields' and woods' dim outline, The darkness lit by spots of kindled fire, the silence, Like a phantom far or near an occasional figure moving, The shrubs and trees, (as I lift my eyes they seem to be stealthily watching me,) While wind in procession thoughts, O tender and wondrous thoughts, Of life and death, of home and the past and loved, and of those that are far away; A solemn and slow procession there as I sit on the ground, By the bivouac's fitful flame.
Oh Captain, My Captain O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done, The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills, For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding, For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; Here Captain! dear father! The arm beneath your head! It is some dream that on the deck, You’ve fallen cold and dead. My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still, My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will, The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done, From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; Exult O shores, and ring O bells! But I with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.