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Revolution in Russia

Revolution in Russia

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Revolution in Russia

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  1. Revolution in Russia 1917-1939

  2. Section 1 Two Revolutions in Russia

  3. Section 1 Vocabulary • Proletariat- working class • Soviet- councils of workers and soldiers • Commissar- communist party official assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty

  4. Russia in 1914 • Russia stretched from Eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean • Dominated by: landowning nobles, priests and an autocratic czar

  5. The Czar & Czarina Czar- Nicholas II Czarina- Alexandra

  6. Population • Autocratic czar • Landowning Nobles • Priests • Peasants-majority of population • Small middle and working class started emerging because Russia started to industrialize

  7. The Revolution of 1905 • Lead to setting up an elected legislative body-Duma–no power • Czar Nicholas II doesn’t want to limit his authority • Used secret police and other enforcers to impose rule

  8. 1914 WWI • National pride in Russia • Enthusiasm for the war Problems Not enough • Supplies • food • money • soldiers • medicine • transportation

  9. The Front Line • Nicholas goes to the front • Czarina Alexandra is left in charge Problem She’s part GermanRussian people don’t trust her

  10. Rasputin • Alexandra used Rasputin for advice • Self proclaimed “holy man” • Wide spread reputation as a healer • A group of Russian nobles killed him on Dec 29,1916

  11. March 1917 • Disastrous battles • Food shortages on the home front ed to bread riots • The czar abdicates • Provisional government in power • Government began preparing a constitution for a new Russian republic • this was a mistake b/c most Russians were fed up with war

  12. Revolutionary socialists organized council of workers and soldiers called soviets • Radical socialist group gains control called Bolsheviks

  13. Leader V.I. Lenin • Real ideas of Karl Marx-Communist Manifesto • Married to Nadezhada Krupskay • Both arrested and sent to Siberia • When released fled to Switzerland

  14. New View of Marx Changed Marxist ideas to fit conditions in Russia • Karl Marx believed the industrial working class-the proletariat would rise up to overthrow capitalism • Russia lacked a large working class • Lenin formed an elite group-the Bolsheviks to lead the revolution and set up a dictatorship of the proletariat • Germany helps Lenin return to Russia-hoping this would help weaken their enemy

  15. The November Revolution • When Lenin is back in Russia he teams up with Leon Trotsky • Lenin promises the people “Peace, Land, and Bread” • November 1917 provisional government is attacked and overthrown • Bolsheviks now in control-they end private ownership of landredistribute the land to all

  16. The New Flag • Red • Entwined hammer and sickle • Symbolized union between peasants & workers • Bolsheviks change name to Communists • Peace with Germany-Treaty of Brest – Litovsk

  17. Civil War Lasted 3 years • Red army fought counterrevolutionaries called the whites • Both sides took extreme measures to try and win the war • 1921 communists prevail • Russia needs to rebuild

  18. Section 2 From Lenin To Stalin

  19. Section 2 Vocabulary • Command Economy- government that makes all economic decisions • Collective- large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group • Kulak- wealthy peasant opposed to collectivization

  20. Government • 1922 Constitution • elected legislature-Supreme Soviet • all 18 year old citizens given right to vote • All political power and means of production controlled by workers and peasants

  21. The communist party was in control • Use of army and secret police to enforce its will • Most of old Russia empire under the rule of the Soviet Union or U.S.S.R.-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics • Still multinational • Many republics • Russia was the strongest and largest of the republics

  22. Economy • Lenin’s plan to put the economy back on its feet called the NEP-New Economic Policy • Allowed little capitalist involvement • It was temporary

  23. Trotsky A firm Marxist Urged support for a world wide revolution against capitalism Was murdered by one of Stalin’s agents in Mexico Stalin Efforts to foster Marxist revolutions in Europe after WWI had failed Wanted to concentrate on building socialism at home first 1924 Lenin DiesTrotsky and Stalin fight for power

  24. Stalin’s Goal • make the Soviet Union into a modern industrial power • To achieve this goal he would use the 5 year plan • build heavy industry • improving transportation • increasing farm output • To achieve economic growth the government controlled all economic activity called a command economy

  25. Agriculture Government gave peasants two options Give up their private plots and live on either 1. state owned farms or 2. collectives Peasants resisted collectivization by -killing farm animals -destroying tools -burning crops

  26. Effects of Collectivization • Angry peasants grew only enough to feed themselves • Government seized grainpeasants left to starve • Increased Stalin’s control • Didn’t improve farm output

  27. The Great Purge • 1934-Stalin fears that rival party leaders were plotting against him Stalin and his secret police cracked down on old bolsheviks Destroyed older generation of revolutionaries & replaced w/ younger party members who owed absolute loyalty to Stalin • Increased Stalin’s power-showed the danger of disloyalty

  28. Foreign Policycontradictory & unsuccessful • Organized the Communist International or Comnitern • aided revolutionary groups around the world & encouraged colonial people to rise up against imperialist powers • Wanted to join League of Nations • Improve relations with western nations for trade and diplomacy • Western nations were suspicious because of the Comintern’s propaganda against capitalism

  29. Chapter 28Section 3 Life in a Totalitarian State

  30. Section 3 Vocabulary • Totalitarian State- government in which a one party dictatorship regulates every aspect of life • Atheism- belief that there is no God • Socialist Realism- • artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing soviet life in a positive light

  31. Totalitarian State • Crush all opposition to the state by creating a sense of fear • Use of secret police, censorship, terror & violence = Obedience • Rely on indoctrination- instruction in the government’s beliefs to mold people’s minds

  32. Coupled Propaganda with Modern Technology • Radios • Loudspeakers • Movies • Theaters Preached the success of communism & the evils of capitalism Helped to revive extreme nationalism

  33. Atheism- official policy of the state • Replaced religion with communist ideology • Russian orthodox church was the main target of persecution • Sacred texts -the writings of Marx & Lenin • Shrines -Lenin’s tomb & Stalin’s Pictures

  34. Changes in SocietyCommunists transformed Russian life • Eliminated the old social order • Not a classless society- did not create a society of equals • elite group-the Communist party emerges as a new ruling class • Few enjoyed benefits and privileges

  35. Benefits of Communism • Free education • Free medical care • Free day care • Inexpensive housing • Public transportation • Recreation

  36. Negatives of Communism • Standard of living still remained low • Industrial growthmany people migrate to citiesled to scarce housing Education • Schools taught basic skills and communist values like -atheism -collective farming -love for Stalin

  37. Women • Won equality under the law access to education and jobs • Needed work because men alone couldn’t support a family on such low wages • Motherhood was considered a patriotic duty • Expected to provide the state with future generations of loyal, obedient citizens

  38. The Arts • State controlled • Artists had to conform to socialist realism-artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing soviet life in a positive light

  39. Censorship • Control over books, music, film, and art Stalin’s total control of society eliminated personal rights and freedoms in favor of the power of the state

  40. Bibliography • • • •