If it’s not Baroque don’t fix it! Breann Prophete
When? • The Baroque era lasted from 1600 to 1750.
Where did it come from? • Started in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.
Composeres • Giovanni Gabrieli • Transition to Baroque • Organist at St. Mark’s in Venice • Wrote antiphonal works for multiple choirs (choirs placed all around the church) • Johann Sebastian Bach • Cothen (1717-1723) • George FridericHandel • Primary goal was to compose Italian opera for English audience • Handel played a significant role in production: rented theater and conducted from harpsichord
music • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=dap9Gsk3_uE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=mjpFi9bn1do • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=jb2TURdBeEQ • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=z33cGMnT9pY
Characteristics • Harmony • Stable diatonic chords played by basso continuo support melody • Clear chord progressions • Tonality reduced to major and minor • Rhythm • Relaxed, flexible rhythms in the Renaissance transformed into regular, repeating driving rhythm • Bar lines were used regularly by late 1600’s • Strong meter • Melody • Less stepwise movement • Larger leaps, wide range, chromaticism • Melodic sequence- repetition of motive at successively higher or lower degrees of the scale
Performance • Orchestra • Modern symphony orchestra emerges • Rarely more than 25 players • More instruments for festive occasions • Strings are the core of the ensemble • Violins replace viols • Multiple string players on each part • Woodwinds consist of oboes, flutes, or bassoon • Brass instruments include trumpets or French horn • Percussion was only rarely used and parts were not written out • Basso continuo was still essential
Importance • many musical forms were born in that era, like the concerto and sinfonia. Forms such as the sonata, cantata and oratorio flourished. Also, opera was born out of the experimentation of the Florentine Camerata, the creators of monody, who attempted to recreate the theatrical arts of the Ancient Greeks. An important technique used in baroque music was the use of ground bass, a repeated bass line. Dido's Lament by Henry Purcell is a famous example of this technique.