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  1. The Impact on Communities in the Absence of Community Governance Systems/MechanismsBy PresadRathnayake Case Study on Integrated Urban Development Project, Implemented by Practical Action South Asia in Galle and Kurunegala Municipal Council Areas

  2. Contents • Introduction • Background • Methodology • Results and Findings • Conclusions and recommendations

  3. Introduction • Participatory Development Approaches • Introduced in 1970’s • Targeting community participation in development process • Introduced by development agencies • Facilitated process • Involvement of governing and administrative bodies • Once facilitation is over, the process hardly sustained • Need for moving beyond participation

  4. ……Introduction • The concept of “good governance” • Evolved in 1960s in Western World • Sri Lanka we had community governance systems for more than thousand years • Introduced to development world in 1990s • Mainly in rural development programs with natural resource development and management • Attempts to involve both governing and administration mechanisms in development decision making process

  5. Background • Integrated Urban Development Program • Improving Access to Infrastructure services by Urban Poor • Involvement of community in development planning through participatory mechanisms • Involvement of Local Authorities , administration and other stakeholders in decision making and implementation process • Establishments of structures at village and local authority level to engage community in development decision making process • Developing the capacities of community and staff of local authorities on participatory planning and decision making process

  6. …..Background • Two project locations • Kurunegala Municipal council area • 3 Urban poor settlements • Amman KovilMawatha, Wilgoda, Mel Kanda • Galle Municipal Council Area • 4 Urban poor settlements • Siyambalagahawatta, Welagewatta, Welsonpura, Bombay Castle Estate • Time frame • 2007 to 2009 (3 Years)

  7. Methodology • Baseline survey • Questionnaire Survey • FGD/ Key Informant Discussions • Participatory planning • Capacity building for community leaders on participatory planning • Developing village level structures • CBOs/Coordinating committees

  8. …..Methodology • Local Authority/other stakeholder engagement in the process • Capacity building on participatory infrastructure service delivery • Building collaborations between community and local authorities and/or other stakeholders by introducing Citizen Group Network (CGN)

  9. …..Methodology • Post project • Field Observations • Discussions with then CBO leaders • Discussions with local authority staff members

  10. Results and Findings • Baseline survey • There are no mechanisms to obtain community participation in development planning • Infrastructure needs of the concerned communities are not addressed • Water/Electricity/Access Roads • Waste and sanitation • Illegal settlers • Service delivery is not priority of local authority • Opportunity to exploit • Politically sensitive areas • Contribute to the city’s vote base • Youth - active campaigners in elections

  11. …..Results and Findings • Participatory planning • Capacity development of village leaders • Aware the process project is going to be followed • Role of community leaders in facilitating the village level planning • Formation of CBOs • One CBO in each project village • Facilitated planning process and project implementation later stage • Leaders represented the village • Two cycles of planning completed • Planning initiated with the community • Seven settlement development plans • Plans presented to local authority and other stakeholders

  12. …..Results and Findings • Local Authority/other stakeholder engagement in the process through capacity building • Field staff engagement in the participatory planning process • Community development officer/GramaNiladhari/SamurdhiNiladhari in Galle • Public health inspectors/GramaNiladhari in Kurunegala • Responding to priorities identified in participatory plans in delivering services • Waste collection, sanitation services

  13. …..Results and Findings • Building collaborations and establishing structures • Community managed waste recycling facilities in both Galle and Kurunegala • Citizens Group Network established in Kurunegala Composition of the CGN: CBO Leaders from 3 settlements, GramaNiladhari’s from 3 settlements, Assistant Commissioner, Chief PHI and PHIs, Planning officer of Municipal council, project partner staff • Resource allocationand implementation of prioritized needs of the Participatory Plans were reviewed in CGN meetings

  14. Post Project Implementation • Participatory planning process discontinued • Absence of strong commitments from both community as well as local authorities “However access road improvements and basic service delivery enhancement observed in most of the settlements” • Less coordination between local authorities and communities • Infrastructure service delivery disturbed

  15. Post Project Implementation • Absence of responsible staff in local authority to engage community in development process • Kurunegala – No community development officer in function • Less interest in decentralized service delivery • Managing waste services with community involvement • Less community involvement in service delivery and less community support on managing various services

  16. Post Project Implementation • CGN discontinued after the project completion • Absence of partner staff • Transfer of some municipal council staff • Implementation of some infrastructure needs made community interest low • Access roads and sanitation

  17. Conclusions and recommendations • Participatory planning allows community engagement in development decision making process • However systems and structures are needs to be established in governing mechanism in order to sustain the community participation

  18. ….Conclusions and recommendations • Sustaining community participation in development decision making process will be assured if; • Local authorities assign staff and resources to facilitate • Systems and structures are established in village level to facilitate community engagement • Local authorities are willing to sustain public private partnerships in service delivery

  19. Thank You