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The Post War Economic Growth. US occupation and post war Reconstruction -Japan was under the command of SCAP [McArthur] -joint force set up the Far Eastern Commission in Washington and convey the Decisions through the US government to The SCAP. Political Reforms:

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US occupation and post war


-Japan was under the command of SCAP


-joint force set up the Far Eastern

Commission in Washington and convey the

Decisions through the US government to



Political Reforms:

  • Demilitarization and democratization
  • -militarists (Tojo Hideki) were tried &
  • The right wing organizations were disbanded.
  • -Shintoism was denationalized.
  • “renunciation of divinity” of emperor
  • Freedom to people
  • Labour organizations & liberalism in
  • education

2. The proclamation of new constitution

-”Showa Constitution”

-reduced the power of the emperor-

Symbolic emperor

-guaranteed the sovereignty of people-

Human rights and equality before the law


-promoted the Diet centrism-key legislative

Body –House of Representatives & Senate-

Cabinet held the administrative rights-

Prime minister was nominated by Diet and

Elected by Diet’s members.


Economic Reforms:

  • The dissolution of Zaibatsu 1945
  • -only 4 major financial groups survived
  • & other small medium sized zaibatsu
  • Were dissolved.
  • -established free competition between the
  • Enterprises
  • -financial groups still monopolized
  • Banking business enterprises.

2. Agricultural Reform 1946

-most successful

-”Owner Farmers Establishment Special

Measurement Law” abolished the ownership

Of landlords.

-Purchase of the farmlands owned by

Absentee landlords or those exceeded the

Reserved land under legal protection.

-price of land was close to 0.


-contributed to land opening up for farming.

3. Labour reform

-encouraged the Labour movements,

Modern employer-employee relationship,

Systematic employment system,etc.


SCAP Period (1945-52)

1. Favourable SCAP policies

-new constitution

-agricultural reforms

-anti-monopoly policies

-stabilizing Japan’s economy

-education policy

-birth control policy


2. Favourable effects of the Cold War

-from punishment to assistance

-special procurement of the Korean War


3. Special relationship between US

  • And Japan
  • Arranging the signing of San Francisco
  • Treaty
  • Assisting Japan’s industrial development
  • Reducing Japan’s military expenses

4. Policies of the Japanese Government

  • Emphasis on education
  • Emphasis on economic development
  • Implementation of economic plans
  • establishment of legal and management
  • System
  • support to small to medium companies-
  • Government give startup support to them
  • -

5. Customs and habits of the Japanese

-willingness to acquire new knowledge

-obedience and sacrifices

-savings and investments

-japanese style of management


6.Cooperation between employers and


-New “family run” business

-life time employment system

-seniority based wage system

-enterprise union-one union for one


-“Japanese employer-employee relationship”



7. Provision of stable business environment

-Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) held

Many seats and became the ruling party.

-regardless of factions within the party,

They had fundamental beliefs, viewpoints,

Standpoints and policiesconsistency

-most were private enterprisesstable

Amid political changes.


External Factors

  • International Instability
  • -Cold War: US shifted the policy of
  • Weakening Japan to putting Japan as
  • Defense against communism in E. Asia.
  • -Korean War 1953: Japan provided
  • War supplies to the US –industries bloomed

2. The signing of the San Francisco

Peace Treaty 1951

-ended US occupation and

Restored Japan independence.

-attracted capital and techniques from

Europe and N. America—economy



3. Favourable international circumstances

-Japan importer of food and raw materials

exporter of industrial products

-Procurement of the Vietnam War


Economic reconstruction and

Recovery 1945-52

-experienced crop failure til 1947

-due to Cold War, the US stabilized

Japan’s economy and political situation.

-Dodge as economic advisor –Nine

Economic Principles-implementation of a

Single currency, establishment of a

Balanced budget, importation of American

Supplies for revenue to build Japan


Economic growth 1952-64

  • “The first economic peak” 1955-57
  • -investment of fiscal funds and bank loans
  • On special needs, e.g. electricity, shipping
  • -five year plan for electricity-petroleum
  • (from crude oil) was on demand- oil refining
  • industry bloomed.
  • -more independent and active economy
  • “Jinmu”boom.

2. The second economic peak 1958-64

  • -mass production of car and other home
  • Appliances
  • “Iwato Boom”
  • Olympic Games held in Tokyo in 1962.

Continuous development and

Instability 1965-79

3. The third economic peak 1965-70

-heavy and chemical industries

-”Izanagi boom”-catch up with Europe

And US.


4. The period of transformation 1971-79

-slowed down due to environmental pollution,

International sentiment against Japanese

Export, conflict between the US and Europe,

International oil crisis 1973.

-needed to reform industrial structure


5. Economic slowdown 1980s and

Recession 1990s

-1980 internationalization-conflict with

International economy

-1990 economic bubble burst-political



Japanese Economic, Cultural

and Political Relations with

Other Asian Countries


Post War Diplomatic Policies

-to view the United Nations as the centre

-to collaborate with liberal states

-to uphold the idea of “a member of Asia”


1950-60s-following US foreign


1970s-regaining diplomatic


1980 and after-becoming a great

power in Asia


1950-60s-following US foreign

  • policy [LK]
  • Establishing diplomatic relations with
  • South Korea
  • 2.limiting contact with PRC
  • 3. Developing pure economic relations
  • With Southeast Asian countries
  • -why?

Japan had lost Chinese market, she

  • Needed to find a replacement.
  • b. Rich resources from SE Asian to develop
  • The chemical industries and SE Asian
  • Countries were economic partners.

1970s-regaining diplomatic

  • Independence
  • Background:
  • By 1970, Became 2nd largest
  • Economic power after USA.
  • 2. USA setback in Vietnam
  • Japan wanted to fill up vacuum.

Establishing diplomatic relations with

  • PRC
  • 2. Strengthening relations with Southeast
  • Asian countries-only limited to economic
  • Aspect.
  • Why be friendly with SEAsia?
  • -raw material, e.g. tin
  • -investment opportunity
  • -oil crisis 1973
  • -ocean in SEAsia important to Japan
  • Sea transport

1980 and after-becoming a great

power in Asia

“Nakasone Yasuhiro’s foreign policy”

-increased diplomatic activities

-exceeded military expenditure

-export Japanese culture and tradition to

Other parts


Nakasone’s “four principles for Asia-

  • Pacific cooperation”(ED.)
  • To respect the spirit of ASEAN
  • To promote the spirit of non-
  • Governmental organizations to collaborate
  • In a leading role with NGO.
  • 3. To confine the cooperative scope
  • Into economic, cultural [exclude military]
  • 4. To establish an open collaborative system

1980 and after-becoming a great

power in Asia

1.improving relation with South Korea

2. Strengthening economic relations with


3. Taking part in political and economic

Affairs of Southeast Asia

4. Spread of Japanese popular culture


Relations between Japan and other

South Asian countries (ED.)


-1950s, peace treaties with India and


-1984, prime minister visited India

& Pakistan

-1990, Japan proposed “three directions”

For development of Japanese relations

With the South Asian countries.


Provide aid to maintain stability and

  • Peace.
  • 2. Expand and strengthen economic cooperation.
  • 3. Enlarge the scope of cultural interflow
  • [preserve cultural heritage]

Unfavourable factors for Japan to

  • improve her relations with other
  • countries:
  • Denials of aggression and falsification of
  • History books
  • 2. Official visits to Yasukuni Shrine

3. Denials of Asian people’s quest for war


4. Territorial disputes with other Asian