Vocabulary Instruction Created by Wendy Taylor
Some information of about vocabulary instruction… • Not about memorizing long lists of words and their definitions-students should play a part in constructing meaning • A combination of explicit instruction along with exposure to vocabulary through lots of reading (both teacher read-aloud and student independent reading) and rich discussion
Vocabulary Research • School age children are expected to learn several thousand words per year • Students who read just 10 minutes a day outside of school substantially increased their vocabulary growth • Check out some very interesting findings on the Big Ideas in Early Reading at. . . http://reading.uoregon.edu/big_ideas/voc/voc_what.php
Word Study or Vocabulary Notebook • Many teachers have each student make a vocabulary notebook • Students create a personal dictionary and label the first 26 pages with the letters of the alphabet-students add class words from word wall or new words they discover • Teachers sometimes keep spelling lists in this notebook-or a list of misspelled words from the students daily writing-then students can add these words to spelling lists or use the notebook as a resource during writing workshop • Maybe you can keep a section for word parts like prefixes, suffixes, base words-or a place to record figurative language-idioms etc.-maybe an ongoing list of phonics rules?
Previously when using every Scott Foresman story, we would pre-teach vocabulary so when our students encountered these words in these stories, they would understand the story better. Now if you are not reading these stories, you will want to choose words from your read alouds or have your students find interesting words from their own reading. You can also find lots of vocabulary in other content areas. You also need to cover specific types of words under the “vocabulary umbrella” like multiple meaning words, homophones, compound words so this will steer you towards the types of words you select for vocabulary instruction. (see next slide) You can teach concepts like antonyms, synonyms, syllabication and strategies like using context clues with really any words you want. See scope and sequence for vocabulary on Slide 7!
Homophones (one/won, there/their/they’re) http://www.all-about-spelling.com/list-of-homophones.html Multiple Meaning Words (pupil, quiver) http://sb058.k12.sd.us/multiple%20meanings/multiple_meaning_words.htm Compound Words (lifetime, supermarket) http://www.learningdifferences.com/Main%20Page/Topics/Compound%20Word%20Lists/Compound_Word_%20Lists_complete.htm
SCOPE AND SEQUENCE OF VOCABULARY AT SPRING-FORD (entire scope and sequence is on wiki) Vocabulary 1 2 3 4 5 6 • Alphabetical order O,N,D N • Analogies J D,MJ D • Antonyms O O,D,F,MJ S,N,F S,O,D,A S,A • Context clues N O,A O,M D,F J • Comparison words J F J • Compound words M N O O O O,N • Contrast words J F J • Connotation & Denotation M M • Etymologies (Greek & Latin roots) J F • High-frequency words all allallall • Homophones/Homonyms/Homographs D,F,A N,F,A N,D,M,A O,D,M S,MJ O,J,A • Multiple-meaning words O,M,A M,A,MJ N,J,MJ S,D,M,A S,O,N,J S,D,J • Opinion words M M A M M • Number-order words F D • Sensory words S N N N N • Sequence words S,O S • Specialized/topical words J F • Synonyms O O,J,MJ S,F O,A S,O • Time words D S • Transition words and phrases D,J D D,J D,F F,M • Words for colors, numbers, and days S • Words for feelings S SS • Prefixes A M M,MJ N,MJ M,MJ • Suffixes F J,F,A D,J F,MJ M,MJ N,M,MJ • Syllabication MJ M,MJ MJ F F,A F,A,MJ
We can use graphic organizers to help our students construct the meaning of a word rather than just copying definitions from the dictionary! These organizers ask students to put definitions in their own words, generate examples and non-examples, find synonyms and antonyms and illustrations. (See an example on the next slide, the attachment or check out the wiki for Vocabulary Organizers!)
antonyms/ Non-examples synonyms vocabulary word ___________ description other information sentence or phrase from text my own sentence my symbol or drawing
Which words should I teach? • Words from interactive read alouds and shared readings • Words from guided reading texts(allows for differentiation) • Functionally important words that kids will encounter often • Interesting words identified by students from independent reading or literature circle text(allows for differentiation) • Choose only 3-5 words to introduce at a time High frequency words are words that appear often in text like the, it, said. We want our students to read and spell the high frequency words quickly to promote reading and writing fluency, but students still need to expand their listening, oral and written vocabulary knowledge of other words with deeper meanings.
Make vocabulary instruction fun!Here are some activities. . . • Illustrate the word on cards • Play “Quick Draw”-give vocabulary term and student illustrates on board-students take turn guessing • Play “vocabulary charades” • Give students credit for finding words in the real-world • “Compose with the Words”-have an ongoing story-adding a sentence each day/week that includes a new vocabulary term • Play $25,000 Pyramid-one child sits in chair-team gives one clues (like diamond ring, car) for category like “things that are expensive”-expensive being the vocab term • Play Password-vocab term on card-one child gives one word clues to team to guess the word on card
More activities • Play “vocabulary bingo” • Debbie Diller does a “Guess My Word Station”-student wears headband and slips card with vocabulary term facing out-partner gives clues like synonyms and number of syllables to help them guess the word • Have students categorize vocabulary words and do semantic mapping • http://www.fsdb.k12.fl.us/rmc/literacy/vocabulary.html
Florida Center for Reading Research has tons of vocabulary activities already made for you! • www.fcrr.org K-1 http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/pdf/GK-1/V_Final.pdf 2-3 http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G2-3/2-3Vocab_1.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G2-3/2-3Vocab_2.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G2-3/2-3Vocab_3.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G2-3/2-3Vocab_4.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G2-3/2-3Vocab_5.pdf 4-6 http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45VPartOne.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45VPartTwo.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45VPartThree.pdf http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45VPartFour.pdf
You can also teach your students how to use context clues to help them figure out a word. 1. Cause and Effect -Because we lingered too long at the restaurant (C), we missed the beginning of the movie (E). (Mark with C & E) 2.Opposite/Contrast –Even though I studied for hours, I flunked the test. (continued on next slide)
3.Part of Speech- “It’s a noun so it has to be a person, place or thing.” Or “It’s a verb so it might be an action.” Each summer tourists flocked to Cape Cod. “It ends in –ed so it’s probably a verb so this is something tourists do in the summer. I’ve heard of flocks of birds.” 4. Synonyms –Sally’s flower garden included dozens of marigolds. 5. Examples in Text- The baboon, like other apes, is a very social animal. 6.Definition in Text- Don’t drive in median or middle lane.
When do I teach vocabulary? • During read alouds and shared readings-the text says “The pirate swaggered across the deck of the ship.” Swaggered means to confidently strut or walk. • Prior to reading a text for guided reading • In content areas-social studies, science, math Set aside time in your weekly plan to teach vocabulary explicitly and play vocabulary building games but also build in routines that always have students looking for new and interesting words to add to their notebooks or to discuss at literature circles etc.