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RTII & Special Education: How they Interface in our Classrooms

RTII & Special Education: How they Interface in our Classrooms

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RTII & Special Education: How they Interface in our Classrooms

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  1. RTII & Special Education: How they Interface in our Classrooms Laura Lisiewski Special Education Consultant Garden Spot Middle School & High School 4/5/12

  2. AM Review: What is RTII? • Describe “RTII” • If you had to choose one word to describe it, what would it be? • Draw a visual representation of RTII. • Where do you think special education would go on your drawing? • Where would you put yourself on your drawing? • Where would a student with a 504 plan lie on your drawing? • ELLs?

  3. Visual Models • • Most schools include special education students throughout all levels of intervention, while a few consider special education their highest tier (tier 3 or 4).

  4. “What does RTI interfacing with special education have to do with me?” • The majority of the instruction that occurs within the RTII framework occurs in our general education classrooms. • Good instruction at Tier I and Tier II can prevent many students from requiring Tier III supports, and in some cases from requiring special education services • RTII is a system-wide framework that addresses not only academic assessment, instruction and intervention, but also includes behavioral assessment, instruction and intervention • If we are using frequent assessment, identify needs systematically, and effectively intervene we don’t have to wait until they fail

  5. What does federal law say about RTI? • Relationship between IDEA and RTI • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was revised and signed into law in 2004 and became effective in July, 2006. According to the law, a specific learning disability is a disorder of one or more of the basic psychological processes that adversely affects academic achievement in one or more domains (e.g., reading, writing math, language). There are three methods of SLD identification under IDEA, as defined in §300.8(c)(10) (OSERS Final Regulations-8/06): • a discrepancy between “ability” and “achievement” • failure to respond to scientific research-based intervention • alternative research-based procedures for determining whether a child has a specific learning disability • (The "third method" is often considered a "processing strengths and weaknesses" model.)

  6. Continued… The 2004 reauthorization of IDEA makes mention of response to intervention as an optional method of part of the process of identifying LD: • In diagnosing learning disabilities, schools are no longer required to use the discrepancy model. The act states that, “a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability[…]” • Response to intervention is specifically mentioned in the regulations in conjunction with the identification of a specific learning disability. IDEA 2004 states, "a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures."

  7. Chapter 14 – P.A. lawSpecial Education § 14.125. Criteria for the determination of specific learning disabilities.  This section contains the State-level criteria for determining the existence of a specific learning disability. Each school district and intermediate unit shall develop procedures for the determination of specific learning disabilities that conform to criteria in this section. These procedures shall be included in the school district’s and intermediate unit’s special education plan in accordance with §  14.104(b) (relating to special education plans). To determine that a child has a specific learning disability, the school district or intermediate unit shall:    (1)  Address whether the child does not achieve adequately for the child’s age or meet State-approved grade-level standards in one or more of the following areas, when provided with learning experiences and scientifically based instruction appropriate for the child’s age or State-approved grade-level standards:      (i)   Oral expression.      (ii)   Listening comprehension.      (iii)   Written expression.      (iv)   Basic reading skill.      (v)   Reading fluency skills.      (vi)   Reading comprehension.      (vii)   Mathematics calculation.      (viii)   Mathematics problem solving.    (2)  Use one of the following procedures:      (i)   A process based on the child’s response to scientific, research-based intervention, which includes documentation that:        (A)   The student received high quality instruction in the general education setting.        (B)   Research-based interventions were provided to the student.        (C)   Student progress was regularly monitored. (ii)   A process that examines whether a child exhibits a pattern of strengths and weaknesses, relative to intellectual ability as defined by a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, or relative to age or grade.

  8. Continued…  (3)  Have determined that its findings under this section are not primarily the result of:      (i)   A visual, hearing or orthopedic disability.      (ii)   Mental retardation.      (iii)   Emotional disturbance.      (iv)   Cultural factors.      (v)   Environmental or economic disadvantage.      (vi)   Limited English proficiency.    (4)  Ensure that underachievement in a child suspected of having a specific learning disability is not due to lack of appropriate instruction in reading or mathematics by considering documentation that:      (i)   Prior to, or as a part of, the referral process, the child was provided scientifically-based instruction in regular education settings, delivered by qualified personnel, as indicated by observations of routine classroom instruction.      (ii)   Repeated assessments of achievement were conducted at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the child’s parents.

  9. What does an IEP mean for me in the classroom? • SDI’s (Specially Designed Instruction) • Could include accommodations • Could include modifications • This student is still part of the RTII framework and may require intervention in an area that is NOT addressed on an IEP

  10. But… am I allowed? Is it “fair”? Accommodations – changes presentation, or allows for additional opportunity, but does not change expectation, does NOT have to be outlined in and IEP or 504 plan and is acceptable practice for students who need additional support on ANY tier Modifications – CHANGES to content Must be outlined in an IEP document, and be included as “specially designed instruction”

  11. What does RTII mean for me in the classroom? • INTERVENTION • Differentiation • Use of data for making decisions • Parent communication • Collaboration with team members to brainstorm

  12. Chapter 15 – 504 plans § 15.2. Definitions.  The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise: Protected handicapped student—A student who meets the following conditions:      (i)   Is of an age at which public education is offered in that school district.      (ii)   Has a physical or mental disability which substantially limits or prohibits participation in or access to an aspect of the student’s school program.      (iii)   Is not eligible as defined by Chapter 14 (relating to special education services and programs) or who is eligible but is raising a claim of discrimination under §  15.10 (relating to discrimination claims).

  13. What does a 504 plan mean for me in the classroom? • Accommodations are mandated • School counselors are casemanagers • Student is NOT a student with an IEP and does NOT receive specially designed instruction – only accommodations

  14. What happens if a student with an IEP has made adequate progress and no longer needs specially designed instruction?

  15. “Yeah, but…”What are barriers to effective implementation in the classroom? • Time • Resources • Training • Lack of parent support • Competing initiatives at the district level

  16. RTII focuses on what you CAN do… • And whether or not students respond positively • The RTII framework operates on the belief that not all students learn the same way, at the same rate • Removes some responsibility from the student, and puts more responsibility on the teaching teams (Tier II and III) Elanco’s RTII model at the elementary level has been effectively operating for several years. Why do you think it’s more difficult at the Secondary level?

  17. How do other staff support us in classrooms within the “tiers”? Guess the “tier”… ELL assistants? Para-educators? District hired Personal Care Assistants (P.C.A.s)? Tutors? Co-Teachers?

  18. Strategies & Tools for the “Tiers”

  19. I taught it… but did they learn it? How do you know? Activity… Name as many assessments, formal or informal that you use during a day’s instruction to assess student learning.

  20. Then what?What do you do if a student didn’t learn? • The RTII model suggests that most students can learn, with adequate opportunity and instruction. • If a student fails or doesn’t master the concept, is it their fault? Or your fault? • How do you intervenewhen your assessments indicate that not all students mastered the concepts? • What supports are in place in your classroom to provide additional opportunities for skill mastery?

  21. Tier II & Tier III

  22. Additional Strategies/ Tools for the Tiers Tier II & Tier III • • Florida Center for Reading Research: • Best Evidence Encyclopedia: • What Works Clearinghouse:

  23. Additional Resources Please help yourself to copies of additional resources, articles, and print-outs. Contact me for other tools or websites as you are looking for ideas! Laura Lisiewski 354-1544 Ext.1045