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AP Notes Chapter 14. Solutions and Their Behavior. Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more components. Solute component(s) present in lesser quantity. Solvent component present in greater quantity.

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ap notes chapter 14

AP Notes Chapter 14

Solutions and Their Behavior

slide2
Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more components

Solute

component(s) present in lesser quantity

Solvent

component present in greater quantity

slide3
A saturated solution contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

Supersaturated Solutions contain more than is possible and are unstable.

slide4
Liquid Solutions

1. molarity, M

slide8
Molal

Sol’n

Molar

Sol’n

slide9
Ideal Solution

P(A)0 is the VP of volatile solvent A at a particular temperature

slide10
Properties of Ideal Solutions

 if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)

slide11
or

P(A) = (A) . P(A)0

[Raoult’s Law]

VP Solution

slide13
for a solution where 2 components are volatile

P(T) = P(A) + P(B)

= (A) . P(A)0 + (B) . P(B)0

slide16
Real Solutions

Positive deviation

Negative deviation

slide17
Properties of Ideal Solutions

 if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)

slide18
Properties of Ideal Solutions

2. NO volume changes occur during the solution process

slide19
Properties of Ideal Solutions

3. NO heat is evolved or absorbed during the solution process

slide20
Raoult’s Law is valid only for VERY dilute solutions or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions
slide21
Solubility Factors

like

dissolves

like

slide23
Polar H2O

Non-polar I2

Polar H2O

Non-polar I2

Non-polar CCl4

Non-polar CCl4

Solvent Extraction

slide24
O

//

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

a “fat”

+ 3 NaOH 

R = (CH2)16CH3

slide25
H2C-O-H

|

|

H2C-O-H

|

|

H2C-O-H

O

\\

+ 3 R-C-O- Na+

a “soap”

surfactants
Surfactants
  • Surface acting agents
  • Lowers surface tension
  • Enables solvation
  • Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents
slide30
Pressure

Sg = kHPg

Henry’s Law

slide33
Colligative

Properties

slide34
Property whose magnitude depends solely on the concentration of particles, NOT on the nature of the particles
electrolyte
Electrolyte

solute that forms ions in solution which conducts a current

non electrolyte
Non-Electrolyte

solute that remains as molecules in solution which does NOT conduct a current

slide37
molality

moles of substance measured through mass before solution process takes place

slide41
1. Vapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1

slide42
1. Vapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1

cA = 1 - cB

slide43
but:

PA = cAPoA

thus:

PA = (1 - cB) PoA

or: PA = PoA - cBPoA

slide44
NOTE: the lowering of the vapor pressure of the pure solvent A is a function only

of cB (solute)

slide45
boiling point

temperature where vapor pressure of solvent equals the atmospheric pressure

slide49
Tbp m

Tbp = kbpm

where kbp = a constant that is a function of the solvent

slide52
Freezing Water

Freezing Solution

3. Freezing Point

Depression

slide54
Tfp m

Tfp kfp m

kfp = freezing point constant

slide56
kfp = kbp

for the same solvent

slide57
OSMOSIS

the flow of solvent into a solution through a semi-permeable membrane

slide58
Examples

Egg Rxn

Microscopic Perspective

Egg Explanation

Macroscopic Perspective

slide59
4. Osmotic Pressure

the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis

slide62
Reverse

Osmosis

slide63
4. Osmotic Pressure

 = osmotic pressure

 V = nB R T

slide64
or

 = MB R T

MB = Molarity of solute

slide68
i = van’t Hoff factor
  • Tbp = i kbp m
  • Tfp = i kfp m
  • = i 
slide69
Compoundi

NaCl

MgSO4

MgCl2

FeCl3

slide70
Compoundi

NaCl 1.9

MgSO4 1.3

MgCl2 2.7

FeCl3 3.4

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