AP Notes Chapter 14

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AP Notes Chapter 14. Solutions and Their Behavior. Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more components. Solute component(s) present in lesser quantity. Solvent component present in greater quantity.

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AP Notes Chapter 14

Solutions and Their Behavior

Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more components

Solute

component(s) present in lesser quantity

Solvent

component present in greater quantity

A saturated solution contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

Supersaturated Solutions contain more than is possible and are unstable.

Liquid Solutions

1. molarity, M

Molal

Sol’n

Molar

Sol’n

Ideal Solution

P(A)0 is the VP of volatile solvent A at a particular temperature

Properties of Ideal Solutions

 if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)

or

P(A) = (A) . P(A)0

[Raoult’s Law]

VP Solution

for a solution where 2 components are volatile

P(T) = P(A) + P(B)

= (A) . P(A)0 + (B) . P(B)0

Real Solutions

Positive deviation

Negative deviation

Properties of Ideal Solutions

 if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)

Properties of Ideal Solutions

2. NO volume changes occur during the solution process

Properties of Ideal Solutions

3. NO heat is evolved or absorbed during the solution process

Raoult’s Law is valid only for VERY dilute solutions or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions
Solubility Factors

like

dissolves

like

Polar H2O

Non-polar I2

Polar H2O

Non-polar I2

Non-polar CCl4

Non-polar CCl4

Solvent Extraction

O

//

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

a “fat”

+ 3 NaOH 

R = (CH2)16CH3

H2C-O-H

|

|

H2C-O-H

|

|

H2C-O-H

O

\\

+ 3 R-C-O- Na+

a “soap”

Surfactants
• Surface acting agents
• Lowers surface tension
• Enables solvation
• Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents
Pressure

Sg = kHPg

Henry’s Law

Colligative

Properties

Property whose magnitude depends solely on the concentration of particles, NOT on the nature of the particles
Electrolyte

solute that forms ions in solution which conducts a current

Non-Electrolyte

solute that remains as molecules in solution which does NOT conduct a current

molality

moles of substance measured through mass before solution process takes place

1. Vapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1

1. Vapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1

cA = 1 - cB

but:

PA = cAPoA

thus:

PA = (1 - cB) PoA

or: PA = PoA - cBPoA

NOTE: the lowering of the vapor pressure of the pure solvent A is a function only

of cB (solute)

boiling point

temperature where vapor pressure of solvent equals the atmospheric pressure

Tbp m

Tbp = kbpm

where kbp = a constant that is a function of the solvent

Freezing Water

Freezing Solution

3. Freezing Point

Depression

Tfp m

Tfp kfp m

kfp = freezing point constant

kfp = kbp

for the same solvent

OSMOSIS

the flow of solvent into a solution through a semi-permeable membrane

Examples

Egg Rxn

Microscopic Perspective

Egg Explanation

Macroscopic Perspective

4. Osmotic Pressure

the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis

Reverse

Osmosis

4. Osmotic Pressure

 = osmotic pressure

 V = nB R T

or

 = MB R T

MB = Molarity of solute

i = van’t Hoff factor
• Tbp = i kbp m
• Tfp = i kfp m
• = i 
Compoundi

NaCl

MgSO4

MgCl2

FeCl3

Compoundi

NaCl 1.9

MgSO4 1.3

MgCl2 2.7

FeCl3 3.4