Lesson 1 The Hydrosphere and the Water Cycle
The Hydrosphere: An Overview… 1. The hydrosphere is… the water on and in Earth’s crust a. The percentage of water found in the oceans… 97 We don’t call ourselves the Blue Planet for nothing! The percentage of water contained by the landmasses… 3 http://www.earthview.pair.com/earth300color.jpg
Of the Freshwater on Earth… b. 90% is in the form of… polar ice caps and glaciers Most of the remaining water is… groundwater Only a small fraction is in… rivers, streams, and lakes
The World’s Water Supply… Oceans – 97.2% - thousands of years Ice caps and glaciers – 2.15% - tens of thousands of years Groundwater - .31% - hundreds to thousands of years Lakes - .009% - tens of years Atmosphere - .001% - nine days! Rivers and streams - .0001% - two weeks
Runoff… Runoff is… water flowing down slope along Earth’s surface http://myecoproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/stormwater.jpg
2. Five Factors that Increase Runoff… a. Little to No Vegetation… B/C topsoil is easily eroded so that water runs off easier
2. Five Factors that Increase Runoff… b. Heavy rain… B/C rain falls too quickly to soak into the ground
2. Five Factors that Increase Runoff… c. Soil with a lot of clay… B/C clay has small air spaces that prevents water from soaking in
2. Five Factors that Increase Runoff… d. Steep Slope… B/C gravity causes the water to flow off faster http://secretagentworms.org/images/runoff2nrcs.jpg
2. Five Factors that Increase Runoff… e. High ground- water levels… B/C there is no space left for the water to soak in underground. http://secretagentworms.org/images/runoff2nrcs.jpg
Watersheds and Stream Systems… 1. A stream is runoff water that begins to flow more permanently in a channel. A large stream is called a river. The smaller streams that feed into it are called tributaries
Watersheds and Divides… 2. A watershed is all of the land area whose water drains into a stream system.
Watersheds and Divides… 3. A divide is a high land area that separates one watershed from another. The Eastern Continental Divide is located in the Blue Ridge Mountains.
Divides of North America… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Continental_Divide
Watersheds and Divides… 4. The watershed of the Mississippi River is the largest watershed in North America! http://www.epa.gov/gmpo/lmrsbc/index.html
Lesson 2 Surface Water: Rivers
Stream Systems: Beginning… Headwaters are… the beginning of a stream Found in mountains Water is cold, oxygenated, clear V-shaped channels have steep sides. The Grand Canyon is a V- shaped valley. http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media/78/3078-004-9B8860F2.jpg
Stream Systems: Middle… 2. What is a floodplain? … a broad, flat, fertile area next to a stream that floods periodically … It is not wise to build on a floodplain b/c it is prone to flooding!
Stream Systems: Middle… a. A meander is a… bend or curve in a stream channel
Erosion & Deposition in Stream Systems (Add to notes) Water (in a stream) flows fastest on outside of a meander & erodes a cut bank. Water (in a stream) flows slowest on inside of a meander & deposits a sandbar.
Oxbow Lakes… b. An oxbowlake is… a blocked-off meander We have our very own oxbow lake in the Carolinas – in the Congaree National Park just outside of Columbia, SC. http://www.daviddarling.info/images/oxbow_lake.jpg
Stream Systems: The End!… 3. The end of a stream is called the mouth … and is usually located at the ocean or another large body of water http://carolinagreensense.com/uploaded_images/NIWB-731140.jpeg
A Stream’s End: Deposition of Sediment… Streams lose their ability to carry sediment …b/c they slow down & lose energy b. A delta is a triangular deposit that forms at the mouth of a river. c. Pollution at the end of a river comes from upstream. The end is almost always more polluted! http://earthasart.gsfc.nasa.gov/mississippi.html
Floods… 1. When do floods occur? when water overflows a stream’s banks
Floods… How are floods related to groundwater levels? … It is more likely to flood when groundwater levels are high … b/c the aquifer is already full and can only hold so much water. … the dotted line on the diagram represents the groundwater level. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004896970800380X
Floods… 3. Which agency monitors potential flood conditions? The National Weather Service monitors changing weather conditions. USGS has established gauging station on more than 4400 streams in the USA!
Lesson 3 Lakes
Lakes… 1. What are lakes often associated with? River basins (watersheds) Why are lakes important? control flooding, recreation, drinking water, habitats What human activities pollute lakes? Coal-fired power plants, agriculture (crops & animals), stormwater runoff
Dams! 2. Dams are built to store & manage water. a. The water of a reservoir is used for… drinking & hydropower. b. The negative consequences of building a dam include… destruction of habitats (around the dam) & water quality changes downstream (colder and clearer). c. Dams… trap sediments which prevent sandbars from forming downstream. d. Dams are removed… if they’re no longer useful or are causing damage.
Lakes Undergo Change… 1. How do lakes get polluted? When water runs off polluted surfaces into the lake Sources of pollution – sediments, agriculture, industry 2. Agriculture affects lakes by… Adding pesticides, fertilizers, & animal wastes
Lakes Undergo Change… 3. Eutrophication is… excess nutrients “fertilize” algae which use up O2 in the lake as they decay
Eutrophication… Algae – producers for aquatic environments. Oxygen – used up (as algae decays) Critters need oxygen for – cellular respiration (breaking down food in presence of oxygen to get energy) If fish don’t get oxygen – they die! Human activities that speed up eutrophication – fertilizing, dumping (raw or treated) sewage into a waterway
Lakes Undergo Change… f. Four things that can cause eutropication animal wastes & fertilizer from farms phosphate detergents industrial toxins untreated sewage
Lesson 4 Freshwater Wetlands
Freshwater Wetlands… Add to notes! A wetland is… land that is soaked with water Three examples of wetlands are… bogs marshes swamps http://www.tommangan.net/twoheeldrive/index.php/2009/11/29/easy-hike-at-historic-bethabara-park/ Boardwalk at Bethabara Park Our very own wetlands!
Bogs… 1. A bog is a water-soaked area with poor drainage. Water in a bog comes from… Precipitation (rain) 2. The soil in a bog is acidic because… of decaying moss slows bacterial growth & prevents nitrogen (N) recycling. http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/bog.cfm
Bogs… 3. Interesting plants that live in a bog are the… Venus fly trap Sun dew Pitcher plants These plants are carnivorous b/c of nutrient-poor soil of the bog. They must digest insects to obtain nitrogen.
Marshes… A marsh is a water-soaked area at the mouth of streams. Fresh water marshes and estuaries often form… Where a river enters a lake or sea 3. Marsh grasses have shallow roots that … anchor silt and mud deposits in a delta. (Builds land!) 2. An estuary is a marsh on the coast where fresh and salt water mix. Brackish marsh near Wanchese, NC http://www.duke.edu/~jspippen/vistas/outerbanks.htm
Marshes… 4. Plants found in a marsh include… Grasses Reeds Sedges Rushes These plants provide shelter and food for aquatic larva.
Swamps… 1. A swamp is… a low-lying area near a stream Swamps may develop from marshes that have filled in to support the growth of shrubs and trees. Congaree National Park, SC
Swamps… 2. Trees that grow in a swamp include… mangrove trees cypress trees
Environmental Issues: A Loss of Habitat… 1. Two valuable functions of wetlands … the filtering of water providing a habitat for migrating birds and fish fry (fish babies!) 2. What % of our wetlands were lost from the late 1700s to mid-1980s? 50 % Why?
Environmental Issues: Upstream Drought… 3. A drought upstream … … will lead to less fresh water entering the estuary and… … saltier water
Environmental Issues: Saltwater Intrusion… 4. Overused wells in coastal areas … … may draw up salt water from the ocean and … … cause the water to become undrinkable.
Lesson 5 Use, Abuse, and Conservation of Water Resources
Review Only! Water Use: The Importance of Water Four important uses of freshwater… Agriculture, transportation, recreation, drinking!
The Importance of Water… 1. Eastern states get the most precipitation. Eastern states - cooling, energy production, and manufacturing. Western states - irrigation 2. Withdrawal rates of freshwater are increasing each year because… …our population is growing!
Use of Water in the USA… http://fracfocus.org/sites/default/files/water-use-pie-chart.jpg