Period of Disunion 220-589 After the fall of the Han Dynasty China split in to rival kingdoms—one in the north, one in the south. This period was filled with war and constant changes in leadership. Many nomadic people settled in Northern China. The culture was mixed, with many different languages and dialects being spoken, and they were not unified.
Government and Unification • Emperor Yang Jian unifies China He restored order after the “Period of Disunion” • He re-conquered the South and began public works projects to bring a sense of unity and pride to the people
Religion and Culture • Buddhism spreads from traders and monks that traveled the silk road form India . • It was welcomed for its message about of escape from suffering—especially from physical suffering. • Many wealthy gave money to Buddhist temples which became architectural wonders. They house huge statues of Buddha.
Technology and Achievements • The Grand Canal—a 600 mile long canal that linked Northern and Southern China– transports rice and armies to northern cities. • The Great Wall was fixed and expanded to better protect from Northern invaders.
Trade • The Grand Canal made trade of food and unifying the culture easier from north to south.
Government and Unification • Began with overthrow of Sui Dynasty, but would last for more than 300 years—seen as Golden Age of China. • Emperor Taizong: unified China through reforms of military, law codes, and land reform. • Emperor Xuanzong: culture, especially poetry, flourished • Empress Wu– Ruled with an iron fist in to prevent disunion, chose advisors on ability, not connections • Wu supported the growth of Buddhism. Buddhist temples and leaders became powerful members of society (The Age of Buddhism—400-845).
The Fall of Buddhism • Buddhist monks, monasteries and leaders became too powerful…taking land and political positions • It also influenced art, architecture and literature • A Tang emperor attacked monasteries and monks—burning books and buildings, killing monks, and taking lands. • The influence of Buddhism never regained it’s strength, but never went away, either.
Religion and Culture • Late in the Tang Dynasty Confucian thought became popular again...but with a twist. • Neo-Confucianism incorporated Buddhist and Taoist spiritual ideas—making it a more complete philosophy and religion. • It stressed ren and li: concern for others and right action. • Also stressed obedience to authority: Kids to parents, people to the government. • Neo-Confucianism replaced Buddhism and eventually became the official state philosophy.
Technology and Achievements • Expanded and Improved Grand Canal • Great artists paint murals, made sculptures, and wrote poems celebrating Buddhism. • Porcelain was invented (Fine China). • Gunpowder is invented—used mainly in fireworks, but limited military use. • Woodblock printing—allows mass production of single images or pages, the precursor of moveable type • Perfected the magnetic compass—able to use the magnetic polarity of the earth to find direction instead of complicated math or star gazing.
Trade • Began to expand trade overland with foreigners: Persia, India, the Middle East • Trade also grew with Korea and Japan in the east. They traded rice, spices, tea and jade. • But their #1 export was silk, and later, porcelain.
Another Period of DisunionChaos and disorder as separate kingdoms competed for power. Lasted 53 years. Called the period of, “Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.”
Government and Unification • Created vast bureaucracy (different departments in govt.) to manage large and diverse empire • To deal with corruption, a civil service system based on merit (a meritocracy) was created. • To work for the govt. (become a civil servant), one had to pass rigorous tests, and only the top performers would get jobs. • People studied for years to take the tests…even some peasants got a chance (but not many). • To a be scholar-official (govt. worker) was an elite and highly prestigious job (and they got some perks…)
Religion and Culture • Neo-Confucianism reaches its peak of influence. • The government actively promotes the new ideology (value and belief system) and makes it the official “religion” of China • The idea of service to the emperor becomes the highest calling (hence the prestige of the civil service system)
Technology and Achievements • Dragonbone pump– scoops water from one place in order to dump it in an irrigation canal • Rice grows plentiful in the south and wheat and barley in the north • Massive agricultural surplus allows for population growth and larger tax base • Moveable type is invented—allows for the first mass printing of media • Paper money is used—simplifies and expedites trade in the empire
Trade • Porcelain joins silk in trade with foreigners. As with silk, they protect this knowledge to ensure their ability to trade with foreigners. • China also increased it’s sea trade, opening up ports on the Pacific
Religion and Culture • The Mongols were nomadic people from the Steppes of Asia, and incredible horseman—likely related to the Huns and Turks • They united under Temujin (aka, Ghengis Khan) in 1206 and began to raid into China and then westward—eventually reaching the Middle East and Eastern Europe • The were animistic, but open and tolerant of all religions, believing that each place had their own god/s. They even adopted the religions of the people the conquered. • They were seen as uncivilized, but settled and “became” the people they conquered over time • They were brutal in attack, but very industrious and promoted huge trade networks everywhere.
Government and Unification • Genghis Khan-Organized army and began attack on China, had northern China by 1227 • Kublai Khan finished conquest of China, named himself emperor in 1279 and started Yuan dynasty. • Heavily taxed Chinese but allowed them to keep own beliefs systems, most Chinese were resentful • Visited by Marco Polo in 1271, and he was made an advisor to Kublia Khan • Yuan dynasty overthrown in 1368 after massive internal rebellion
Technology and Achievements • Used tax money to repair and build new roads and palaces, patrolled and maintained the Silk Road, extended the Grand Canal • Created a postal system • Built new capital, Dadu • Made 2 attempts at invading Japan…and failed • MOVED IDEAS AND INVENTIONS that the Chinese had kept secret across the globe!
Trade • Mongols traded be sea and by land which increased contact with the west • The military protected overland trade routes– making it safe for foreign traders. • Italian merchant Marco Polo who served under Kublai Khan’s court– He determined that China was highly civilized, and mad Europeans very curious about China
Government and Unification • Expelled the Mongols—Zhu Yuangzhang became first Ming Emperor • Emperors become powerful—eliminating ALL foreign influence, abolishing some offices, and attacking any threats to their power • Civil Service system is still used (examinations for government jobs). • Created “censors”—officials who investigated the behavior of local leaders. • Eventually overthrown in 1644 by Manchus from the North
Religion and Culture • Buddhism, Daoism and Confucian thought still influence China—a return to neo-Confucian ideas
Technologyand Achievements • They build the Forbidden City in Beijing—a huge imperial and governmental compound where only the upper class can enter. • Restoration of The Great Wall– they expand it to over 2000 miles long! • Massive sailing fleet led by Admiral Zheng He—possibly reaching the Americas?
Trade • Admiral ZHENG HE led many voyages all over Asia and Africa. He returned with new goods, animals, and representatives to honor the Chinese emperor. • For a short time, the Chinese expanded their sea trade tremendously! • Fear of outsiders and other internal issues made China stop the expeditions • Isolationism–Ming emperors conclude the west has little to offer so they restrict trade, letting few outsiders in (they don’t know that their secrets are out…) • Result: China avoids outside contact and falls behind other countries in technology and military power