verbs ii l.
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VERBS II. Conjugations. The IV Conjugations. A conjugation is a group of verbs which are conjugated in the same regular way. If you can conjugate one verb in a particular conjugation, you can conjugate any of them.

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verbs ii

VERBS II

Conjugations

the iv conjugations
The IV Conjugations
  • A conjugation is a group of verbs which are conjugated in the same regular way.
  • If you can conjugate one verb in a particular conjugation, you can conjugate any of them.
  • There are 4 major conjugations of verb in Latin, and we classify them according to their stem vowel.
the stem vowel
The stem vowel
  • You can tell what conjugation a verb is by looking at its second principle part, the present active infinitive.
  • All present active infinitives end in –re, the vowel before the –re is called the stem vowel.
the first conjugation
The first conjugation
  • Verbs in the first conjugation have “A” for the stem vowel.
  • Consider the verb, “STO, STARE– to stand.”
  • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, ends in “-ARE”, so “A” is its stem vowel.
  • Ergo, all the present tense forms of the verb have an “a” before the personal ending.
sto stare to stand
STO I stand

STAS You stand

STAT He/She/It stands

STAMUS We stand

STATIS Y’all stand

STANT They stand

STARE to stand

STA Stand!

STATE Stand y’all!

STO, STARE – TO STAND
the second conjugation
The second conjugation:
  • Verbs of the second conjugation have a long “e” as their stem vowel.
  • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, of a second conjugation verb ends in “-ĒRE.” The first principle part, the first person singular present active indicative, ends in “-EO.”
doceo doc re to teach
DOCEO I teach.

DOCES You teach.

DOCET He / She / It

teaches.

DOCEMUS We teach.

DOCETIS Y’all teach.

DOCENT They teach.

DOCĒRE To teach

DOCĒ Teach!

DOCĒTE Teach y’all!

DOCEO, DOCĒRE – “to teach”
the third conjugation
The third conjugation:
  • Verbs of the third conjugation have a short “e” as their stem vowel.
  • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, of a third conjugation verb ends in

“-ERE.”

  • Besides the long mark in the second principle part, second and third conjugation verbs can be distinguished by inspection of the first principle part, which only ends in “–eo” in the second conjugation.
  • The short “-e-” changes to “-i-” when we conjugate the verb.
curro currere to run
CURRO I run.

CURRIS You run.

CURRIT He / She / It

runs.

CURRIMUS We run.

CURRITIS Y’all run.

CURRUNT They run.

CURRERE To run

CURRE Run!

CURRITE Run Y’all!

CURRO, CURRERE – TO RUN
the fourth conjugation
The fourth conjugation:
  • Verbs of the fourth conjugation have “-i-” as their stem vowel.
  • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, of verbs of the fourth conjugation ends in “-ire.”
  • Likewise, the first principle part, the first person singular present active indicative, ends in “-io.”
sentio sentire to feel perceive sense
SENTIO I feel.

SENTIS You feel.

SENTIT He / She / It

feels.

SENTIMUS We feel.

SENTITIS Y’all feel.

SENTIUNT They feel.

SENTIRE to feel

SENTI Perceive!

SENTITE Perceive y’all!

Sentio, sentire – to feel, perceive, sense
3 rd io
3rd -io
  • There is a special class of third conjugation verbs whose first principle part, the first person singular present active indicative ends in “-io,” though the second principle part, the present active infinitive, ends in the short “-ere.”
  • These verbs are conjugated like 4th conjugation verbs, despite their infinitive.
capio capere to take seize
CAPIO I take.

CAPIS You take.

CAPIT He / She / It

takes.

CAPIMUS We take.

CAPITIS Y’all take.

CAPIUNT They take.

CAPERE to take

CAPE Take!

CAPITE Take y’all!

Capio, capere – to take, seize
verb conjugations
VERB CONJUGATIONS
  • 1st PRIMUS “-are”- STARE, AMARE
  • 2nd SECUNDUS “-ēre”– DOCĒRE, MONĒRE
  • 3rd TERTIUS “-ere” – CURRERE, DICERE
  • 4th QUARTUS “-ire” – SENTIRE, AUDIRE